Understanding the responsibility in Using Credit Cards

A Credit Card comes with its perks and convenience for users. However, if not handled properly, it can put you in some serious debt and impact your credit rating as well. The mantra is responsible use and knowing the rules of the game so that you can reap the most optimum benefit from its usage…

Words: Sangeeta S


Credit Cards offer great ease in managing your finances and spending, offering extra credit to you for making your purchases without the inconvenience of carrying cash. However, over-dependence on plastic money and failing to repay your outstanding due can get you in deep trouble. You need to be careful and use it strategically so that it works to your advantage. Keeping certain points in mind can help you maximize your card usage and can work in your favour.

Timely Payments
Your credit card does not offer you a loan; it only gives you credit and you need to pay back in full in a certain time. It works on the principle of ‘buy now and pay later’ but it is important to pay the full amount in time. By doing this, you will avoid paying interest and late fees that will help your credit score to soar up. Missing your payment can get you in trouble with the Bank or Card Company. It is advisable to have a Credit Card only if you can pay your bills on time otherwise Credit Cards are not for you. Not paying your bills on time can call for penalties with very high rates of interest. Set up an automatic payment system or schedule a reminder but always pay your dues on time and never miss your billing dates.

Minimum Payment
The minimum payment is the minimum amount of money that you are required to pay on your Credit Card debt as calculated in your statement each month. You may feel happy that you need to pay a small amount but in the long run, your outstanding will keep increasing as the interest charges will keep adding. With a Credit Card, you get additional time to repay the amount spent so it is important to pay the full amount all at once or pay with heavy interest later. An alternative is to convert the remaining outstanding into EMI’s, as you save an additional charge and have a lower interest rate.

Cash on Credit Card
A Credit Card can be used to withdraw cash, but it is best avoided. When you withdraw cash using your Credit Card, you pay a higher rate of interest with no interest-free period. The interest starts as soon as the money is withdrawn with no grace period. When you use a Debit Card to withdraw money, you are using your own fund while with a Credit Card, it is a cash advance on your Credit Card. The feature of cash advances should only be used in case of any financial emergencies.

Card Security
Online card frauds are frequent and in abundance, so we need to be extra careful while using our Cards – be it credit or debit. You need to protect your PIN and CVV number. Be cautious when you use the card while shopping or in restaurants. When you hand over your card to the person behind the counter, ensure that it is not copied. Use only authorized and trusted sites while using the card for online shopping and make sure you use safe payment options for making online purchases. Never compromise with the security of your card.

Multiple Cards
Different cards are designed for different lifestyles, so choose the one most suitable for your requirements. There are cards designed for travellers, shoppers, online shoppers, frequent fliers etc. so there is no point in having a card that offers benefits that you never use.

Keeping multiple cards as per your requirement is a good idea. In fact, if you keep a gap of 12 to 15 days in the billing cycle of your cards, it will help you as you can use one card in the first half of the month and the other one in the second half. This way you can use the grace period of both the cards and extend the time between your actual swipe and the bill payment to 30-50 days.

Keep a Check
Check your statement every month. It will list all your expenses and in case there is a wrong billing or fraud, you will know immediately, and you can take action. Also, keep a check on your credit score given by the credit bureau. This will help you track all the information in your credit accounts.

Safety Tips at a Glance
• Sign on the reverse of the card immediately on receipt; unsigned cards can be misused
• If you lose your card, block it immediately and even make a report in the police station
• Always use a secure site while doing any online transaction; look for a lock icon in the status bar of your web browser
• Avoid using your card on suspicious websites or apps; read reviews of a website or app before making a purchase
• Shopping on your own device and on your home server is the safest way; public machines and networks are best avoided
• Never respond to phishing e-mails and don’t click on suspicious links
• Avoid accessing your Internet banking account on unsecured public computers and always remember to log off
• Get yourself enrolled for 3D Secure (Verified by Visa (VBV)/ MasterCard Secure Code (MCSC))
• ‘High-risk’ countries have a track record of many fraudulent activities; get your card replaced if you have used your card in such countries
• Make sure that the card you get back after any transaction is yours only; often cards get exchanged in shops and crowded locations
• Always get your cards swiped in your presence so that the details of your card are not captured anywhere
• Always cut the card in 4 pieces diagonally across magnetic stripe while discarding
• Never give a photocopy of the back of your card to anyone for any reason
• Change your PIN frequently and use a strong one
• If you are a regular online shopper, it is a good idea to keep a separate dedicated card with a small credit limit
• Review your statements thoroughly and never ignore alerts
• Always keep your information current; any change in contact details should be notified to the bank so that your information doesn’t reach the wrong hands
• Keep your system updated with most up-to-date security features

Employee: Know your rights!

Understand your rights as an employee
Often people are not happy with their jobs because they feel exploited; most of the employees and even employers are often not aware of the basic rights of an employee. And that leads to dissatisfaction. With employment sector growing it is important to be aware of these basic rights.


The law in India gives provisions to protect employee interest. Though there are no particular laws pertaining to the private employment but certain rights apply to all employment in India and should be adhered to by the employers. Some of them include the following:

Written Agreement
You have the right to get a written Employment Agreement before you start work. The agreement should clearly list the rights and obligations of both the employer and the employee and clearly state the ‘terms and conditions’ of your employment. The written agreement is beneficial for both the employer and the employee; it clearly states what was agreed. It is useful for employer as it controls the behavior of the employee in the workplace and in the case of any dispute it helps resolve the case. It gives a sense of security and protection to both the parties. It is advisable to read the agreement carefully before you sign the dotted line. You may also seek professional help so that you understand the agreement.

Every employee has the right to leaves such as casual leave, sick leave, privilege leave and other leaves as per the policy of the organization. Casual leaves are given to all employees for any emergency or unavoidable reason. Sick leave is obvious for when an employee falls sick and paid leaves are those which one plans in advance.

Other leaves like paid leave, unpaid leave, study leave etc. are given by the employers based on their company policy. For one day sick leave the employee need not provide any medical certificate however, for sick leave exceeding more than 2 days a medical proof needs to be provided. An employee can take encashment leave while quitting service, discharge, dismissal or death. Leave during notice period can be taken as per the terms of agreement or in case of emergency.

Maternity Benefit
The Maternity Benefits Act, 1961 was enacted to regulate maternity benefits to women working in establishments. The Act provides for prenatal and postnatal benefits for a female employee in an establishment. Earlier the female employees were entitled to 12 weeks of maternity leave. With new amendments made to the Maternity Benefits Act, 1961, the paid maternity leave has been extended from 12 weeks to 26 weeks for women working at companies with at least 10 employees. Employees cannot be discharged or dismissed while on maternity leave. If dismissed, they can still claim maternity benefits.

Protection from Sexual Harassment
Every employer has the responsibility to ensure that his/her employees, especially female employees, are protected while at work. All incidents of sexual harassment need to be intervened and responded by the employers. The company’s policy should clearly formulate rules which prohibit sexual harassment. There should be clear guidelines on how to handle such cases. The policy should also ensure impartiality in investigation. Any woman who has been sexually harassed at the workplace can seek remedy under the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013. Sexual harassment is punishable under the Indian Penal Code.

Gratuity is a statutory benefit paid to the employees who have rendered continuous service for at least five years. The amount is payable to an employee on end of employment either by resignation, death, retirement or termination, by taking the last drawn salary as the basis for the calculation; payment liability of the employer increases with increase in salary and tenure of employment. A lump-sum amount is paid to the employee based on the duration of his total service. Even if the employee is entitled to Provident Fund or Pension, he is still entitled to Gratuity. It is a gesture of gratitude by the employer paid in the form of money.

Provident Fund
Managed by the Employee Provident Fund Organization of India, Employee’s Provident Fund (EPF) is a retirement benefit scheme that’s available to all salaried employees. Any company with over 20 employees is required by law to register with the EPFO. The employer and the employee both have to contribute to this fund; 12 per cent of the basic salary of the employee is deducted every month for this fund. It is mandatory for the employer to contribute to this fund and he cannot deduct the whole PF contribution from the employee’s salary. Any employee can opt out of the scheme provided they do it at the beginning of their career. There are withdrawal rules and the amount cannot be withdrawn at will.

Illegal Job Interview Questions
Job interviews are done to learn about the candidate. Questions can be asked but not the ones that cross the line of your privacy. Questions related to candidate’s personal life like age, race, religion, pregnancy, marital status etc. should not be asked. Job discrimination based on the following factors is not right.

• Age – Asking age should just be a check whether the candidate is above 18. Beyond this it calls for age-based discrimination.
• Nationality – If the candidate is authorized to assume employment where the job is located, one’s nationality has nothing to do with professional ability.
• Race, ethnicity, or color
• Gender or sex
• Religion – Religion is a personal choice and has nothing to do with professional ability. Discussion on religion is not correct.
• Disability – If the job is physically demanding it can be conveyed to the candidate but beyond this context any health related questions are inappropriate.
• Marital Status – Digging into such details is considered unethical and it is no indicator of one’s professional ability.
• Pregnancy – The candidate’s plan to have children can affect their personal lives but if it does not reflect on their performance it is irrelevant.
• Family Status – Questions about work-home balance is a question mostly asked to woman. Questioning one’s professional ability just because she is a woman is unethical.
• Political affiliation.
• Criminal Record – A candidate is not obligated to discuss arrest history with a recruiter. The recruiter can do his/her own research or the candidate can be upfront about any past and clarify.

Studying Abroad? Look out for these tips for you set off

Apart from giving you the knowledge you are seeking studying abroad gives you exposure to new language, culture and history. But it requires good amount of homework along with paperwork and most important finances. If you are planning to study abroad then read on…


THE idea of studying abroad is attracting students all over the world. There is no doubt that moving beyond your comfort zone helps you become self-reliant and gives you more opportunities for personal growth. But it is important that you have clarity about your reasons to study abroad. Once you are clear about your purpose then selecting the country/course becomes simpler. If choosing the right course and university is important, it is equally important to understand the procedures involved with student visa application. Different countries have different rules and consultants in the field can help you with the process.
Foreign fees are high and that is the reason financial capabilities are checked before issuing the visa. If you don’t want your visa be rejected on grounds of finance, you have to show that you have financial support from your parents. Financial capability plays a major role in your visa application says father of an applicant going through the process.


Studying abroad requires plenty of money and not all get scholarships so loan is the only option to meet the expenses. Interest rates are high and loans over 5 lakhs are generally with a co-lateral. This needs to be evaluated. Just spending money and studying is not the point unless there is job potential. After all you will need to earn and pay back your loan. You need to check whether the country allows for post-study stay back option.
However, these things are only for evaluation purpose and not for mentioning in your SOP (Statement of Purpose), says father of a young aspirant planning to study abroad. It becomes one of the reasons for visa rejection because you have no obligation to return to your home country. Even if the country you plan to go for studies allows for stay back, don’t mention about your plans to stay back. Your visa may get rejected says an expert from the field. You need to prove that you are not a potential immigrant and you have full plans to get back to your home country.
Once your visa is approved and you are ready to travel it is important that you do your homework well. Make sure you are well acquainted with all the entry and exit rules of the country. Once you land in the foreign land the immigration officer would need to see all your documents so that he allows you to enter the country.


Keep all your documents handy; passport, visa, offer letter from the university, bank statement, financials etc. While abroad, a student’s passport is one of the most important documents to keep safe. It is important to have photocopies of important documents with your parents or any trusted person in case of theft or loss.
Some countries would also need to verify your accommodation. Coming to accommodation, it is important to get to a genuine property dealer. Scams are common in this field. Don’t make any payment without checking the site. If the deposit asked is very high or if you want to view the site and are refused then get suspicious and it is better to avoid such deals.
Health insurance is another important area. Many countries like UK provide for health insurance but certain countries like Ireland don’t do it. You have to take private insurance which is mandatory for visa application. Prior to departure, the student should make an appointment with his/her doctor for a check-up. Going to a new country could mean exposure to foreign diseases or illnesses, and students should be up to date on all vaccinations. Now health being very important students often carry medicines. Make sure you are not carrying any drug which is banned in that country. And if you are carrying medicines in large quantities it is better to carry prescription along.
Cooking is something all students will need to do in the foreign land; after all how much can you eat out.

It is better to carry some utensils. Since fire cooking does not happen in many countries, carry utensils which work on induction. Pressure cooker is something which most students find useful in a foreign land and it will be helpful if you carry one too. Also make sure you carry a universal adaptor.
Money is another important part of your travelling abroad for studies. It is important you know about the various options available to carry out monetary transactions overseas. Forex card must be carried by all students travelling abroad for studies. Foreign currency demand draft (FCDD) is also an option. Other options include wire transfer, travelers’ cheques etc. Make sure you are in full control of your finances in foreign land. Having a small amount of the native currency is important to have in case of emergency.

And last but not the least do your own homework says Chavi Sinha a young aspirant travelling to Ireland for higher studies. Consultants play a major role in giving you guidance and assistance and keep you away from hassles but it is also important that you do your own homework too. Talk to others and connect with more and more people to gain knowledge and insight on travelling abroad. Social media can be a great help to connect and get information. Consulting with students who have already completed a period of study abroad is a great way to learn about what to expect and how to pack for the trip, she adds.
Check the weather conditions and shop appropriately. It is also a good idea to shop in the country where you plan to study so that you get the right clothes for the weather conditions there.

☛ Be careful with your baggage; never leave it unattended or with strangers
☛ It is a good idea to have travel insurance
☛ Use only authorized agents for currency exchange
☛ Try to understand the layout of the city through a guide or city map
☛ Preferably your accommodation should be in place before you land
☛ Carefully review all your travel documents
☛ If possible try to land in new city during daytime
☛ Get in touch with tourist desk about the safe means to reach your destination
☛ Abide by the country code and dress accordingly
☛ Make copies of all your important documents like passport, offer letter, visa etc.

Right to Information A common man’s right to demand information from the Government

The RTI (Right to Information) Act was enforced to empower people. Introduced in 2005, the Act aims to bring accountability and transparency in the working of the Government. An initiative by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the Act gives every citizen the ‘right to information’ and also the right to get a timely response. Read on to know the process and understand the Act.


The Right to Information (RTI) was introduced to empower citizens so that they become better equipped to keep vigil on Government activities. It gives all citizens access to information under the control of public authorities and this helps promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority.
The Act extends to the whole of India except Jammu & Kashmir. It gives every citizen the right to seek information from a public authority and the right to get a response within 30 days. It covers all constitutional authorities, the executive, legislature and judiciary and is one of the most powerful laws of the country.
Filing an RTI is a simple process and every citizen should know the process. The application can be written in English, Hindi or the official language of the state he/she resides in.
It is important to have clarity on your query while filing such petitions; ask specific and clear questions. Give your complete contact details so that you get the RTI response on your mailing address. Keep a photocopy of your application and send the original through post or you can even submit it to the Public Information Officer (PIO) in person.

Acknowledgement slip
Make sure you receive an acknowledgement slip in case you submit the form in person. If you plan to send by post, it is a good idea to send it by registered mail so that you have an acknowledgement slip on the courier.
The Act is simple and people-friendly to the extent that even an illiterate person can file an RTI. He can tell his requirement and the concerned person is obliged to write it down and read it to him before processing it furthert.
And if you wish to do it online, some departments have the facility for filing an online RTI. Also there are various independent websites that help you file online RTI.
All central and state government agencies come under the purview of the Act. You can demand any information related to Municipal Corporations, Government universities, schools, Provident Fund department and other similar agencies.
The list is exhaustive and RTI has huge scope. The Government is obliged to even give information related to telephone bills of ministers, money spent on foreign trips, money spent by your representative to improve your constituency and much more. You have the right to information because it is your money which you pay in the form of taxes each year.
However, few organisations are exempt from RTI due to security reasons; those related to the country’s defence like the CRPF, BSF, RAW etc. Also, courts have disallowed release of any information that relates to a foreign government or any information that would affect the safety of any individual.
But one point is clear – any information which cannot be denied to an MP or state legislator cannot be denied to any citizen.

RTI for personal/community issues
Often, we are bothered with problems related to our tax refund, pension release, withdrawal of PF, release of Aadhar card, issuance of documents related to driving license, passport, property and similar other issues.
If you are not getting any answers or you are not satisfied by the response of officials, you can get them through an RTI. Filing an RTI will guarantee an official response within 30 days of your filing. And then based on the response you can take your case further.

Similarly you can even raise issues related to your area or community. If any government property is not maintained then you have the right to question and get a response.
Issues like bad road conditions, potholes and bad water supply all are covered under RTI. You also have the right to know how your representative spent the funds allocated to him/her for the development of your constituency.

There is a small amount which you will require to pay along with your application. For central government departments one needs to pay ₹10 with every RTI application. For public authorities under the state governments, the rates may vary. In addition to the application fees, there is also a fee for the information to be delivered (depending on format/number of pages).
It is important that citizens use RTI to turn India into a great democracy. Our duty doesn’t end by just voting; it requires us to be more vigilant and take an active role in the running of our government machinery.
The government is making efforts to make the system more transparent and giving citizens the right to question and get response.

Refusal of application
It is not necessary that every RTI gets accepted. Sometimes you may not get the information or your RTI application itself is not accepted. There are options you can explore in case this happens.
You have the right to know why your request was rejected and also the details of whom you can approach to appeal against this refusal. You are also entitled to know how much time you have to file this appeal.
If you don’t get a satisfactory answer or you have a complaint with the way in which the PIO handled your RTI application, you can file a complaint with the Central or State Information Commission. They have a duty under this Act to inquire into your complaint.
Your application may be rejected for the following reasons –
 If it has not been completed properly
 It is not precise as to what specific information you need
 The information you have requested is covered by an exemption


The application can also be partially rejected, if some of the information in the documents you requested is sensitive and falls under an exemption.
 If you do not receive a decision from the PIO within 30 days, you can file an appeal against the decision before an officer who is senior to the presiding officer
 You need to file this appeal within 30 days. This time period may be extended if the officer feels that the delay is justified
 If you are not satisfied with the first appeal decision, you can make a second appeal within 90 days to the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission by following the suggested format for the second appeal

Daily penalty
A daily penalty of ₹250 can be imposed on the PIO for withholding information or providing wrong information. This has to be paid until the information is provided. However, the total amount of the penalty should not exceed ₹ 25,000. But before doing this, the PIO is given a chance to present his/her case.

You have the right to know why your request was rejected and also the details of whom you can approach to appeal against this refusal. You are also entitled to know how much time you have to file this appeal./span>

You are empowered to:
 Ask for any information
 Take copies of any Government documents
 Inspect any Government documents
 Take material of any Government work
It can help you in the following ways:
 Expedite pending issues
 Expose corruption
 Use it in the court
Section 2 (f) of the Act: “Information” means any material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.
Section 2 (j) of the Act: “Right to Information” means the right to information accessible under this Act which is held by or under the control of any public authority and includes the right to:
 Inspection of work, documents, records
 Taking notes, extracts, or certified copies of documents or records
 Taking certified samples of material
 Obtaining information in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts where such information is stored in a computer or in any other device
Section 2 (i) of the Act: “Record” includes any:
 Document, manuscript and file
 Microfilm, microfiche and facsimile copy of a document
 Reproduction of image or images embodied in such microfilm (whether enlarged or not)
 Other material produced by a computer or any other device

Online bank fraud – your rights

With India going digital and more people opting for online transactions, cybercrime hazards are also increasing. A major part of the population has smart phones and easy access to Internet, but lack of education and awareness make them easy victims to cybercrime. The need of the hour is awareness and education about cyber security. Also it is important that you know your rights in case of any fraud. Read on to know more:


BEFORE we learn about our rights, let us first understand what can go wrong. Online fraud is on the rise and it happens in many ways.

• Often in restaurants or shops we give our cards (debit or credit), which can be cloned
• Fake calls are another common thing where the caller pretends to be from a bank and then extracts your card or PIN or OTP number
• Fake e-mails with virus attachments steal financial information from your computer
• Phishing emails link you to sites that steal your login details
• Scams that promise to transfer money into your account
There are many more such cybercrimes
happening every day. Now what can we
do about this?
Most importantly, we need to be alert about all transactions happening in our accounts. As a bank customer, you have full right to receive SMS notification/email alerts regarding any transaction happening in your account.
Banks must ask their customers to mandatorily register for SMS alerts so that in case of any illegal transaction, the bank and customer can be notified immediately and corrective action taken.
One needs to be alert and careful so that such frauds do not happen to us. But in spite of all the alertness, things can go wrong. What should you do then and what are your rights?

We checked with Nyaaya ( to understand the rights of a consumer in case of online fraud. Nyaaya is a legal-tech initiative explaining India’s laws.
Ideated by Rohini Nilekani and created by the Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy, Nyaaya is committed to providing you with clear, actionable information about Indian laws in simple language so you can protect yourself, assert your rights and seek proper justice.

If you see any suspicious transaction in your account, you need to contact your bank immediately. This may sound basic, but often in panic, customers react in different ways and forget to take the initial action fast.
Most banks have dedicated staff for this purpose. In case of card fraud, the relevant contact details are found on the backside of your card as well as the website of the bank.
Call the bank immediately, lodge a complaint and don’t forget to note your complaint number. You will need the number for follow-up of your case.
The Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers (CBCC) enacted by the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI) mandates each bank branch to display the name of the official responsible for addressing customer grievances, says an expert from the field.
If your complaint is unresolved at the branch level, you may approach the Regional / Zonal Manager/ Principal Nodal Officer (PNO) at the address displayed at the branch.
Specifically for ATMs, telephone numbers of help desks/relevant contact persons of the banks that own ATMs are also displayed at every ATM machine for the customer to be able to lodge a complaint/seek redressal for any issue while operating the ATM.
The bank usually responds to your complaint within 30 days of receiving the complaint. They will also let you know if more time is needed to investigate the matter or if more action is needed from your end.

What happens if you are not satisfied with the resolution? You can escalate the matter by approaching the Banking Ombudsman established by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under the Banking Ombudsman Scheme, 2006.
The details of the Banking Ombudsman under whose jurisdiction the branch falls is supposed to be displayed by each bank and you can lodge your complaint with that particular ombudsman.
But this is the second step you take if you are not satisfied with the resolution given by your bank. Now again if you are not happy with the decision of the ombudsman, you can approach the appellate authority against the decision – the deputy governor, RBI.


The Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers (CBCC) enacted by the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI) mandates each bank branch to display the name of the official responsible for addressing customer grievances, says an expert from the field.

– Actively check your last login activity
– Do not click on links which you are not sure of
– Stay away from applications within social media platforms. Many games are designed by hackers to get your personal details
– Be careful of phishing emails; phishing is the fraudulent practice of sending emails to extract your personal information
– Always download applications from official Play Stores/App Stores
– Use VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) while doing online banking and other critical transactions. A VPN is a network technology that creates a secure connection over a public network
– Use reputed antivirus mechanisms
– Resetting your phone is not enough; hackers can still recover data. Do military grade formatting and use services like file shredder.
– If any application you are using shows more data consumption than usual, it is time to get alert
– Keep your phone password protected; enable encryption service if available on your phone
– Never reveal personal financial information (PIN, internet banking passwords etc.) to anyone, including those who claim to be authorised representatives of the bank
– Use unique passwords and avoid using personally identifiable information like birth dates
– Enable One Time Password (OTP) for all online transactions, and subscribe to mobile and email alerts for notification of transactions
– Change your internet banking password on a regular basis
– Always follow bank instructions and avoid carrying out transactions on public computers. If they must be used, make sure you log out of your account and delete browsing history after finishing the transaction

This appeal must be made within 30 days of the ombudsman’s decision. If you file a case in court, such as the Consumer Ccurt, you cannot approach the ombudsman while the case is going on. You also have the option to file the compliant with the cybercrime cell/police station.
File a case with the relevant consumer forum.
The consumer forum is present at the district, state and national level. You can file a case there depending on two factors: the amount of money you lost and location of your loss.
You can file the complaint in the place where the money was lost, or where the opposite party (that is the bank) carries on its business.
For loss of up to Rs 20 lakh, you can approach the district forum; for loss from Rs 20 lakh to Rs 1 crore, you can approach the state commission and for any loss exceeding Rs 1 crore, you can approach the national commission.

You should approach consumer forums only when you feel that the bank has been negligent and has not given you proper service.
You can also file a complaint with the Secretary of the Department of Information Technology of the respective state/union territory.
The Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology has mandated that the Secretary of Department of IT of each state shall act as the ‘Adjudicating Officer’ to decide any disputes/violations arising under the Information Technology Act, 2000.
If you are not satisfied with the order passed by the Adjudicating Officer, you may file an appeal with the Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) within 25 days. The CAT is supposed to take a decision within 6 months – unfortunately, it has not been functioning properly and is not an effective remedy says our expert.

Writing a will

Money is crucial for survival and it will be crucial for your loved ones too even when you are not there. But it is not necessary that your wealth will get passed to your loved ones automatically unless you have willed so. That is the reason it is important to make a will during your lifetime. Read on to understand the basic and simple process of making a will.


Before we understand the basic process of making a will, let us first know what will happen if we do not leave a will behind for our family and loved ones. Nothing gets transferred automatically. Even to your spouse who may not get the wealth if you have not willed so.
In order to regulate your assets and property after death, it is always advisable to leave a will, irrespective of your religion. A ‘will’ is an intent of a person as to what he/she has decided should be done with properties, movable or immovable, after that person’s death.
A will is a legal document that clearly sets out your wishes for how your assets or property are to be distributed after your death. Having a clear, legally valid and up-to-date will is the best way to help ensure that your assets are protected and distributed according to your wishes.

Making a will
Anybody can make a will at any time, provided the person is above 18 years and is of sound mind. You can will all your assets and property provided you have complete ownership. All you need is a piece of paper where you write your will.


You will need to sign the will or put your thumb impression in the presence of two witnesses. Both the witnesses also need to sign or put a thumb impression in your presence. Anyone can be a witness to your will – including the executor.
Now who is an executor? An executor is the person whom you assign the duty of carrying out your instructions after your death. Anybody above 18 years with a sound mind can be your executor.
However, if you have missed appointing an executor in your will, the court will appoint an administrator to execute your will. In case the executor appointed by you is incapable of carrying out the execution or is incapable of carrying out the job, in that scenario also the court will appoint an administrator.
Once your will is ready with signatures it becomes a valid legal document and getting it registered is not mandatory. However, if you wish to get it registered, do it personally or through an authorised agent. You will need to present the will before the registrar for its registration.
Generally, you do not have to pay stamp duty on wills but you will have to pay registration fees; the fees and procedure are different for different states.

Will and nomination
Often people confuse between will and nomination. They are two different things, explains Sumeysh, a lawyer working in Delhi. According to law, a nominee is a trustee and not the owner of the assets. In other words, he is only a caretaker of your assets.
The nominee will only hold your asset as a trustee and will be legally bound to transfer it to the legal heirs. To give an illustration: if a man nominates his father as a nominee for his life insurance and at the same time if his will says something contrary then his father will have to part with the insurance money.
Basically, in legal proceedings, will supersedes nomination, says Sumeysh. The best way to avoid complication and ambiguity is to write a clear will, which supersedes everything else. It supersedes not only nomination but Indian Succession Acts like the Hindu Succession Act.
The fact is that if a will supersedes nomination then one can only make a will. But it is advisable to do both, says Sumeysh. Nomination ensures smooth transfer of funds to the nominee, while the will ensures smooth transfer of funds/assets to the legal heir. Though a nominee and the person in whose favour you make a will can be different persons, it is advisable to name the same person in both places so that the possibility of any legal dispute in the future can be avoided.
Sumeysh explains this through a simple illustration. Raju has six toffees. He wants to hand them over to his sister, Ranjini. However, Ranjini is out for her dance classes and will come home after two hours. Raju has to go out to play cricket. So he gives the toffees to his mother and tells her that these toffees are for Ranjini and have to be given to her.
In the above, Raju is the original owner, toffees are the property, the mother is the nominee and Ranjini is the heir. As the nominee, the mother has the right to receive and hold the toffees, but she cannot eat or sell them. She is obligated to hand it over to Ranjini.
Types of wills
Conditional – The will is made to take effect on the occurrence of a condition
Joint – Written by two or more persons, such wills come into effect after the death of all testators
Mutual – Two individuals can write a mutual will giving their wealth to the other in case of their death. Mutual wills are also known as reciprocal. The will and its revocation is possible during the lifetime of either testator. Where joint will is a single document of two persons, mutual wills are separate for two persons
Concurrent – Written by individuals who have properties in more than one country. Separate wills are written
Sham – Wills are considered void if a person writes one for some hidden objective
Privileged – These are a special category of wills made by a soldier or an airman or a mariner, when he is in actual service and is engaged in actual warfare. A privileged will can be made as soon as orders are received that a person is to be posted in an operational area. It is usually written down but can even be an oral declaration before two witnesses present at the same time

The registration of a will does not fall under the category of compulsorily registrable document, says Pratap Shankar, an advocate of the Supreme Court of India and co-founder and partner of New Delhi based law firm Legal Consultus, our expert.
However, it is always advisable to have the will registered for many reasons; firstly, it vindicates the intention of the person, who is making the will, which may be taken into

account in case dispute lands up in the court of law. And secondly, in case the original will is lost, probate may easily be obtained of a certified copy of the same, he adds.
A will can be changed as many times during a life time as you desire even if it has been registered. For making changes in a registered will you may apply directly or through an agent to the registrar.
Ideally, if you are making substantive changes to a will in

order to convey your wishes properly, you should execute a codicil, which is a written statement that supplements or modifies an existing will. It must be executed in the same manner as that of the original will. And lastly if you want to cancel your will you have that option too. Make another will or destroy the earlier will.
So go ahead and make your will and of course if you wish you can always withdraw or change it anytime you wish.