Ancient World

The real Tribes of Nagaland

Bordering Myanmar in the northeast India, the mountainous state of Nagaland is known for its diverse indigenous tribes, festivals and culture. Read on to learn more about the beautiful state and its beautiful tribes and people.


Call them the fighters, soldiers or the headhunters, Nagas can be called the strongest people living in northeast India. It is difficult to trace their origin though the word ‘Naga’ could have originated from the Burmese word ‘Nagka’ which means people with pierced earlobes. Today it covers number of tribes that reside in Nagaland, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
History proves that they are great warriors who always fought to defend themselves and their clan. Nagas are warm hearted people, progressive in nature with primitive style of living still intact. The predominant religion of Nagaland is Christianity; Nagaland was Christianized in the 19th century by the well-known American missionary, Edward Clark. As far as the dialect is concerned each tribe has a different language. However, the Nagaland Assembly proclaimed English as the official language of Nagaland and it is the medium for education in Nagaland.
There is a lot of mystery around the people, their tribes and practices. Each tribe has its own attire, beaded jewelries and signature hat. They celebrate festivals all through the year which is a good way to know their deep rooted culture. It is interesting to explore and learn about the different tribes and their unique cultures. A visit to Nagaland can never be complete without exploring the beautiful tribes of Nagaland.

Tribes of Nagaland
There are 16 major tribes in Nagaland. Each tribe is unique in character with its own distinct customs, language and dress. Historically, Naga tribes celebrated feasting and head hunting.

The Angamis are a major Naga ethnic group settled in Kohima and Dimapur Districts. They are hill people depending basically on cultivation and livestock-rearing. They are traditional warriors known for terraced wet-rice cultivation. They are also known for the Sekrenyi celebrations every February.

You can distinguish Konyak Naga by their pierced ears and tattoos. They have tattoos all over their faces, hands, chests, arms and calves. Facial tattoos were earned for taking an enemy’s head. They have certain unique practices that set them apart from other nagas; they are known for iron-smelting, brass-works, and gunpowder-making and wood sculptures. The Konyaks were the last among the Naga tribes to accept Christianity.

One of the major Naga tribes of Nagaland, Aos were the first Naga tribe to embrace Christianity. They are well known for multiple harvest festivals held each year. They have a rich tradition of clothing; The Ao Naga warrior shawl is called Mangkotepsu. This is exclusively worn by the men folk.

Former ‘Eastern Angamis’ the Chakhesangs are now recognized as a separate tribe. Most of the villages of this tribe fall within Phek district of Nagaland. The tribe is basically divided into two groups known as Chokri and Khezha. Their festivals are based on agricultural cycle and Sukrunye is their most important festival.

According to oral tradition, the Changs emerged from a place called Changsangmongko, and later settled at Changsang. Another theory says that the Chang migrated to present-day Nagaland from the east, and therefore call themselves Chang (“Eastern” in the local dialect).

Dimasa Kachari
The Dimasa people (or Dima-basa, and also called Dimasa-Kachari) are an indigenous ethno-linguistic community presently inhabiting Assam and Nagaland states in Northeastern India. Agriculture is the principal occupation and main source of livelihood of the Diamsa Kacharis. Their important festival is Bushu which is celebrated after the completion of harvest.

Khiamniungan is one of the major Naga tribes, mainly found in the Noklak district of Nagaland, India and the adjoining areas of Burma. According to a popular myth, Khiamniungan means ‘source of great waters’ – the place from where the early ancestors of Khiamniungan are said to have originated. Unlike several other Naga tribes, the advent of Christianity had little impact on the Khiamniungan for a long time, due to their remote location.

The Kukis constitute one of several hill tribes within India, Bangladesh, and Burma. It was the arrival of missionaries and introduction to English education that that exposed the Kuki people to the modern era.

The Phom are a Naga group settled between the Konyak in the north-east, the Ao in the west and the Chang in the south. While Christianity has had an impact on Phom society, it has remained largely traditional due to limited contact with other outsiders. Agriculture is the traditional occupation of the Phoms, and the tribe practices jhum cultivation. The Phoms also have a tradition of pottery, bamboo work and spinning.

Zeliang Naga Tribes is one of the dominant tribe of Nagaland mainly found in Kohima district, with rich indigenous knowledge systems and have minimum impact of present day modernization. Their primary language is Zeme.

Yimchunger is a Naga tribe whose traditional territory includes Tuensang and Kiphire districts in Nagaland state of India, and western areas of Burma. The Yimchunger Tribe, like any other Naga Tribe has no written record of its origin or history. Maybe wandering from place to place they settled in their present location. However, going by narrated accounts the origin is believed to be from Thailand.

The Sangtams are one of the major tribes in Nagaland living in the Tuensang and Kiphire districts of Nagaland. They have retained their traditional beliefs in spite of embracing Christianity; Sangtams celebrate twelve different festivals, all of which are affiliated with their traditional culture and religion. Like many other tribal groups in Northeast India, they practice jhum, or shifting cultivation.

Lotha is the name of a major Naga tribe inhabiting the Wokha district of Nagaland. Lothas are known for their colorful dances and folk songs. The male members wear shawls indicating their social status. The prestigious social shawl for women is Opvuram and Longpensu for men. Like many Nagas, the Lothas practiced headhunting in the older days and later they they gave up this practice after the arrival of Christianity,

The ‘Sumi Naga’ is one of the major Naga peoples in Nagaland who mainly inhabit Zunheboto district. However, many have spread and are now living in a few more districts within Nagaland. Like most other Naga tribe, they were also headhunters before the arrival of the Christian missionaries and their subsequent conversion to Christianity. The Sumis celebrate many festivals which have been carried down from generations.

The Pochury identity is of relatively recent origin. It is a composite tribe formed by three Naga communities: Kupo, Kuchu and Khuri. Agriculture and animal husbandry continue to the main occupations, but many Pochurys have taken up other jobs. Many farming families are now above the Subsistence level due to scientific techniques, irrigation channels, government subsidies and new crops.

Like other Naga tribes, there are few written historical records of Rengmas. Slavery used to be a practice among the Rengmas, but by the time the British arrived in the Naga region, the slavery was a declining practice. Gentle and humble people, in olden days they were known for their bravery and were the champion warrior. There is an interesting belief that marrying the Rengma girls would bring good fortune and prosperity in a family.



This traditional ball game from Assam has been around for years. Matches of the game were traditionally made to observe the spring and New Year festival of Bihu.


SPORTS in India dates back to vedic era. Many of the sports played today are believed to be originated and played in ancient India. Being a vast country with diverse culture one can find diversity in sports too. Apart from a different culture every state in India has its own traditional sports.
The list can be endless but here we are going to talk about a unique game from Assam. Assam is known for various traditional sports like buffalo fight, cock fight etc.

Youth from Assam can be seen playing major sports like football, cricket etc. But at the same time the tribals of the state have tried to keep the traditional sports alive too. Such traditional sports are mostly played during festivals.
So next time when you travel to Assam apart from enjoying the natural beauty of the place don’t forget to watch the local enthusiastic people playing the local traditional games. And if you have the zeal you can also be a part of the game. Watching the traditional games will give you the real feel of the place.


An ancient game known as Dhop Khel or Dhoop Khel is another popular indigenous game in Assam. It is a traditional Assamese ball game played by both men and women. The game which tests speed, stamina and acrobatic skills is played between two eleven-member teams. In the game ball is thrown at the opponent to knock them out of the game. This game is usually played during spring and New Year festival of Bihu. The game which was also played to amuse Ahom royalty as a spectator game is not played much in the state these days. In fact it is believed that the game became more popular under the kingdom of Ahom. Efforts are on to revive the lovely ancient culture of the state. Since this sport requires absolute physical fitness, it is closely associated with the development of the state as well.
Apart from showcasing Assam culture these sports can help build fitter citizens. The current generation hardly plays such games and is more involved with gadgets and gizmos. And slowly these lovely traditional games were moving towards extinction. But the general curiosity about culture and heritage has helped in reviving interest in traditional sports. These traditional games are unique and if right efforts are made to popularize these games, we will soon see people’s interest back in such games which can even help build a strong state as these games require good stamina and strength.


Playground – The field is 125 m in length and 80 m in breadth with the central point right in the middle of playing area. Two lines called kai are drawn 12 ft away on each side of the point at the center and four flags are placed at four corners called chukor nishan. The central point which is equidistant from the two halves is surrounded by a circle known as gher.
Players – There are two teams comprising 11 players each and it is played using a rubber ball called Dhop. There are two types of Dhop, one played by men and the other by women.
How it is played – The rubber ball is thrown in the air by one of the players to the playing court of the opponents group. The players throw the ball at the competitors to eliminate them out of the game, while they try to get hold of the ball and dodge other players. If they are able to hit any opponent with the ball, that player has to leave the game. This is how the team tries to oust the opponents.


The play begins with the dhop being thrown in the air, by one of the players.
If the ball fails to land in the opponent’s court, it has to be thrown again.
And if it lands, the dhop has to be caught by the opposition team else the other team gets a chance to throw.
The player who catches the throw gets a chance to stand on the gher of the court and throw the dhop to the opposition’s katoni (one standing on the other gher).
If the katoni is not hit they lose the chance.
If the katoni is hit under the waist, it becomes a kota, and the katoni turns into a hoia or a bondha, and is no longer a ghai – a name initially used for all players at the start of the game.
The bondha then has to move to the opposing team and has to try to stop them from catching the dhop; this strategy is called aulia.
If he is successful in catching the dhop, he can cross over to his team’s side without being touched by any of the opponents. This move is known as hora.
He also has to ensure that he does not go out of the field of play i.e. the kais while attempting to re-cross to his own team. If he does this successfully, he becomes a ghai again.
Suppose a team loses ten ghais i.e. they become a bondha, then the only one left in the team will be named ghai katoni. If the opposition manages to perform a kota on him, then it is a piriutha, which means the team has won the game. If both teams have equal number of ghais, the game ends in a draw.

Rich artistic and cultural traditions

Kesariya Balam Padharo Mhare Desh, the common welcoming phase of Rajasthan, speaks a thousand words on the culture, heritage and inviting attitude of the people of the state


‘Raja’ means king and ‘sthan’ means place, and hence Rajasthan is named after the various kings – the Rajputs, Marathas and even Muslim rulers.
The state has numerous beautiful forts and palaces that still stay upright as a mark of the royal lifestyle of the erstwhile maharajas.
This desert landscaping province, also the largest state of India, has rich artistic and cultural traditions which reflect the ancient Indian way of life.

Rajasthan’s culture is inspired by some of the oldest tribes – Bhils, Minas, Meos, Banjaras, Gadias, and Lohars.
Rajputs form the majority of the population and they have been glorified in numerous texts for their bravery, warfare and administrative prowess.

Some of the main Rajput clans include Chauhans, Sisodias, Solankis, Rathors and Panwars.
The main dialects originating from Rajasthan include Marwari, Malvi, Mevati, Jaipuri / Dhundari; the most famous being the Marwari.

Since many kings have ruled Rajasthan, each region has its own folk culture.
Although most of them are similar due to their geographical confinement, each differs in their unique style.

Manganiyars and Langas are the two prominent groups that contributed to the Rajasthani folk music.
During the pre-monsoon time, they would play ragas to invite the rains.

Many traditional instruments are used by them including sarangi, kamayach, dhols and shehnai. Folk songs were usually for purposes like weddings or birth or were passed to tell a story of bravery or a romantic tale.
They were usually in the form of ballads.

Dance was mainly performed for the entertainment of the people and the king.
They differed from tribe to tribe. Ghoomar, which originally took birth in Udaipur and was performed by Rajput women, has gained popularity and recognition throughout the world.

Some of the popular dance forms of Rajasthan are the Kalbelia dance which is an ancient form practiced by the women of Kalbelia community (snake charmers). Chari dance is another famous dance form that requires a lot of skill and patience as it involves balancing on various sized pots on one’s head.
The architectural style in Rajasthan is also majestic and striking. The Jain temple in Ranakpur and the Umaid Bhavan Palace in Jodhpur are a mixture of western Indian architecture style. The Jaisalmer Fort, built in 1156 by Rajput ruler Rawal Jaisal, contains several gates, Jain temples and Havelis and is included as a world heritage site by UNESCO.
Rajasthani staple food is daal-baati-churma. Daal is lentil curry and baati consists of round balls made out of wheat flour and baked in charcoal fire. The churma is a dessert made out of crushed wheat balls, rolled in jaggery sugar, and topped with ghee.
Beautiful carpets, garments and jewelry are handcrafted by the local people.


Camel leather is widely used to make journals, shoes and bags. The carpets are made from the hand-knitting techniques and are much like Persian carpets; they have a geometric design and borders.
Fairs that take place every year in Bikaner and Pushkar are a festival or celebration of sorts dedicated to camels and their owners. There are various events and competitions which are carried out for fun like camel racing and camel dances. These festivals are usually held for two days.
The people of Rajasthan celebrate ‘Samskaras’, which are events that cause a turning point in one’s life. There are a total of 16 events that they celebrate. They include: Garbandhan (conception), Pumsvan (ceremony performed by those who desire a male child), Seemantonayan (ceremony for the expecting mother to keep her spirits high), Jatakarma (the child is fed mother’s milk for the first time after birth), Namkaran (naming ceremony), Nishkraman (the infant sees the sun and the moon for the first time), Annaprashan (child is given solid food to eat for the first time), Chudakaran (a lock of hair is kept, and the remaining is shaved off), Karna-vedha (ears are pierced), Upanayan-Vedarambha (thread ceremony after which the child begins his studies), Keshanta (hair is cut, and guru dakhshina is given), Samavartan (person returns home after studies are completed), Vivaha (marriage), Vanprastha (retirement), Sanyas (shedding away all responsibilities and relationships) and Antyeshthi (rites done after death).

The birth of a child is celebrated by beating copper plates together when it is born along with a celebratory gunfire to announce the birth.
The child is named 11 days after he or she is born. This is called ‘Namkaran’. Another interesting custom is ‘Mundan’, in which the hair of the child is shaved completely as it is a common belief that the hair carries negativity from the child’s past life. The women wear sarees with the dupatta or ‘odhni’ covering their head as a sign of respect. The men wear dhotis and kurtas with a headgear called paghri or safah (to protect them from the strong desert heat).
The designs on their clothing are either embroidered or dotted. The material is usually cotton and even silk for women.
Rajasthan is a land of sand dunes and jungles, of camels and wild tigers, of glittering jewels, vivid colours, and vibrant culture. There are enough festivals in Rajasthan to fill a calendar and an artist’s and a traveller’s palette, and the sights and cuisine are nothing short of spectacular.
The glory of royal Rajasthan is enticing enough to make an ardent traveler return to explore the mysteries of this majestic state again and again to engulf themselves into the startling, thought-provoking, and ultimately unforgettable attractions.



Popular for its detailed erotic art and stone carvings, the Khajuraho temples are among the most beautiful medieval monuments in India



LOCATED in Madhya Pradesh, the ‘heart of India,’ the Khajuraho temples were commissioned when the Chandelas ruled between AD 900 and 1130.
They were dedicated to two Indian religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a culture of acceptance and respect for differing religious identities.
In a space of about 20 sq kms in Khajuraho, 85 temples were built by successive Chandela rulers. This period was considered the golden age for central India.
The ancient transcripts list 85 temples in Khajuraho out of which only 25 could survive after various stages of preservation and care.
No mortar was used in building the walls and most work was left to gravity. The architecture of the temples was symbolic to the central Hindu beliefs and was based on designs of mandala principle of squares and circles.

The temples have a wide array of intricately carved statues and the art work depicts the daily life and symbolic values in ancient Indian culture.
The temples also depict the many different manifestations of Shakti and Shiva, the female and male divine principles.
Under the patronage of the Chandela Rajput kings of central India, the temples of Khajuraho were grouped into three complexes based on their geographic locations – east, west and south.
The western group of temples are the best preserved, mainly because they were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986. The most significant in the complex is Lakshamana temple whose walls are filled with innumerable idols and images of almost 600 Hindu gods, animals and sensuous couples.


The surprising element is that even though Khajuraho temples are known worldwide for their erotic sculptures, the sexual themes cover less than 10 per cent of the sculpture.

Much has been written about the enthralling architecture and masterful sculpting, but little is known for certain about the intent of the sexual imagery.

Some believe that the depiction of sexual activities in temples is a good omen because they signify new beginnings and represent new life.
However, it is widely believed that the temples were meant to celebrate all aspects of human life including sex.
Sexual pleasure was considered an art form and the Kama Sutra to be practiced and perfected by both genders.
“Hinduism has traditionally considered sex an essential part of life, which could be why the carvings are casually interspersed between others that potray activities as varied as prayer and war,” wrote Charukesi Ramadurai in BBC

Travel in October 2015. “The fact that they are set in plain view and not tucked away in an obscure corner seems to suggest that their creators meant for them to be seen by all.”
The difference is especially striking considering how conservative Indian society has grown over the last few centuries.

It is hard to miss how much the town has changed and developed. A number of tourists, both national and international, visit Khajuraho to experience the legends about the Kama Sutra temples.
Khajuraho, which was known for its ornate temples, artistic creativity, magnificent architectural work and carvings of eroticism, now receives financial aid from the UNESCO along with heap loads of tourists including researchers, historians and art enthusiasts.

It is also a major symbol of ancient and religious tolerance that India holds for its monuments and ancient practices.

Arunachal Pradesh land of majestic mountains

One of the most linguistically diverse states in India, where food preparations vary from district to district and where travellers find their haven in the lap of the Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh is a land of majestic mountains, breathtaking greenery and vivid tribes.



IT is one of the last remaining regions where a number of primitive tribes still exist and maintain a harmonious balance with each other and with nature.
Arunachal Pradesh is in north-eastern India and is popularly known as ‘the land of the Rising Sun’. The culture and lifestyle of this state has been heavily influenced by the tribes residing there.

They are divided into three groups, according to their socio – religious beliefs. The Monpas and Sherdukpens of Tawang and West Kameng districts are followers of the Lamaistic ethics of Mahayana Buddhism and worship in temples known as ‘gompas’.
Tribes like Adis, Akas, Apatanis, Mijis and Thongsas worship the Sun and the Moon.

There are also tribes like Noctes and Wanchos which follow Vaishnavism.
Apart from being famous for its tranquility and scenic beauty, Arunachal Pradesh is also known for its colourful festivals. The tribal people find reason to celebrate, be it religious, socio-cultural or agricultural.
Festivals here are like an occasion for people of different communites and regions to come together and celebrate.


Rice is the staple food of Arunachal Pradesh and it is eaten in various forms. One is by wrapping it in leaves and boiling them. Thukpa, a noodle soup and Apong, a refreshing drink, are also quite popular here.
The main occupation of its people differs from tribe to tribe. While some are involved in bamboo handicrafts, weaving or pottery, others are more into jewellery-making or herding. Agriculture is still the most common and popular occupation.
Most people have adopted their rituals and traditions from the tribal customs. Any event, whether it’s a marriage or feast or auspicious, is incomplete without singing the Ja-Jin-Ja song. The Adis, one of the most prominent tribes, migrated to Arunachal with the gradual spread of Buddhism across Tibet in the 17th century.

They follow a tribal religion known as Donyi-Polo and worship gods who represent various elements found in nature.
Young women and men get introduced to each other through the prevalence of dormitories in the Adi tribe. Men can visit women’s dormitories but they aren’t allowed to stay overnight. However, if there is a mutual liking between two people, they can ask their family’s permission and get married after their approval.
The girl is still supposed to live at her parent’s house until the first child is born so that the boy gets ample time to get independent and build their own house.

Adi tribe
In the Adi tribe, descent is traced through the father only. There are some in the tribe who make political and social decisions and settle disputes.

They are known as Kebangs. Depending upon their position, they are named as Bane, Atek and Bango.
An interesting characteristic of the locals are their costumes. They wear the most vibrant colours with distinguished patterns. The womenfolk wear silver jewellery adorned with bamboo bits or turquoise beads.
The women also paint broad blue lines from their foreheads to the tip of the nose and five vertical lines drawn below the lower lip along the chin. The men also beautify their bodies with various tattoos and designs.
It is indeed beautiful how Arunachal Pradesh has successfully preserved its ancient heritage and culture in a westernising world. It is a proud state adorned with customs of primitive tribes, the evergreen beauty and solitude of the Himalayas, the rejuvenating and bountiful grace of nature and the overall mystical and mythical vibe of the north east.

Dynasties of MAGADHA—II

Two of the largest empires of India—the Mauryan and the Gupta—had ruledover Magadha, which proved to be the centre in which art, religion, mathematics, and astronomy flourished



THE emergence of ‘zero’ and decimal notation, and the discovery that the Earth revolves around the Sun occurred during the Golden Age of the Gupta period. In addition, the Magadha dynasties supported art, architecture and sculpture, leaving behind many stupas and statues as proof of their patronage. Learning centres like Nalanda flourished, and Buddhism and Jainism gained royal support.

The Nanda rulers might have remained a tiny footnote in the history of India’s dynasties, if it wasn’t for Chandragupta Maurya overthrowing Dhana Nandaunder Chanakya’s guidance.
Mahapadma Nanda ascended the throne after killing his father, Mahanandin, the Shishunaga king, establishing the Nanda dynasty which ruled briefly from 345 to 321 BC.
He built a powerful army and expanded the Magadha empire towards Punjab in the west and towards the Deccan Plateau in the south. Kalinga (present-day Odisha) was part of the Nanda empire, but broke free later, only to be reconquered by Ashoka of the Maurya dynasty.
Ruling with the aid of ministers, the Nandas built irrigation projects and introduced standard measures, easing trade activity within the empire. Yet, they were known for their cruelty and extortion, which paved the way for the rise of Chandragupta Maurya.


One of the largest empires of the world of its time, the Mauryan empire ruled over Magadha for nearly a century and a half, up to 180 BC. With efficient administrative, economic and security systems set in place under Chanakya’s advice, the empire expanded and thrived.


While Chandragupta Maurya expanded his empire towards Persia, it was during his grandson Ashoka’s reign that the empire encompassed nearly all of India and beyond. Its boundaries extended from Assam in the east towards Afghanistan in the west and included parts of Southern India. After Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire went into a total decline.

After a brief rule by the Gauda kings, Shashanka and Manava, the Palas came into power with Gopala as the king. They were a Buddhist dynasty that followed the Mahayana and Tantric schools and ruled for nearly four centuries from the 8th to 12th centuries.
With a large elephant unit and navy, the Palas were a strong military power, yet they were diplomats too. Philosophy, literature, painting and sculpture gained importance during this period. The Somapura Mahavihara was built by the Palas who also lent their patronage to the Nalanda and Vikramashila universities.
With expanded trade between the Pala Empire and the Middle East, Islam made its appearance. In turn, Baghdad learnt India’s mathematical and astronomical discoveries.
Ramapala was the last strong Pala king and the weakened empire fell to the Sena dynasty during the 11th or 12th century.
Although smaller kingdoms ruled after the Pala dynasty, the region would eventually come under Muslim rule.

Chandragupta Maurya turned towards Jainism and renounced the throne during his later years, retiring to Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and living the rest of his years as an ascetic.
Ashoka embraced Buddhism, spreading the message of peace and non-violence after the brutal Kalinga war. He built many Buddhist viharas and stupas, some of which held Buddha’s relics. He sent his daughter Sanghamitra and son Mahindra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism.
Brihadratha, the last Mauryan king was killed by the commander-in-chief of his guard, Pushyamitra Shunga, who established the Shunga Empire.
Buddhism and Jainism, which had flourished under the Mauryan kings, suffered suppression under Pushyamitra’srule. His descendants though offered their support and were instrumental in expanding the great Sanchistupa.
After the death of Agnimitra, the second Shunga king, the Magadha Empire shrunk to central and eastern parts of India, although the Shungas continued to rule for over a century up to 75 BC.
Devabhuti, the last Shunga ruler, was defeated by Vasudeva who established the Kanva dynasty, while the Shungas continued to rule in a much smaller region.The Kanvas ruled for barely 45 years before they were overthrown by the Satavahanas.
Putting an end to the nearly 500 years of splintering of the Magadha, the Gupta Empire rose to prominence in 320 BC. It ruled up to 550 or 600 CE with Pataliputra as the capital.
While Sri Gupta is recognised as the first Gupta king when he ruled over lands offered by the Murundas of Odisha, it is Chandragupta-I who is credited with expanding and stabilising the Gupta Empire. With Chandragupta marrying the Lichchavi princess Kumaradevi, he gained iron ore mines. Combined with Magadha’s advanced techniques of metallurgy, the iron ore enabled them to build iron instruments, which became a valuable trade commodity that added to Magadha’s wealth.
Chandragupta’s son, Samudra Gupta, went on successful military campaigns, extending his reign from Brahmaputra in the East to portions of Afghanistan, and from the Himalayas to the river Narmada.
Samudra Gupta’s son, Chandragupta-II, also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya, expanded the Magadha boundaries by defeating the foreign kingdoms of the Hunas and Kambojas, Kinnaras, Kiratas, Sakas, Mlechchas, Yavanas, Tusharas, and the Parasikas, among others.
After the death of Skandagupta, Chandragupta-II’s grandson, the empire went into decline. It began disintegrating under Huna incursions deep into their territory. Attacks from the Vakatakas and Yashodharman of Malwa aided the decline.
Despite the constant battles and expansion, the Gupta rule is also known for advancing art, literature and sculpture. Great advances in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy were made.
Aryabhatta, who is credited with the introduction of zero, bringing the decimal notation into place, lived during this period. Aryabhatta had also stated that the Earth revolves around the Sun and had studied solar and lunar eclipses. It was also the period when Varahamihira, the astronomer, astrologer, mathematician produced PanchaSiddhantika, BrihatSamhita and BrihatJataka. SushrutaSamhita, the basis of India’s traditional medicinal knowledge, ayurveda too belonged to the Gupta period.
It was in the court of Chandragupta-II that the navaratnas (nine jewels)– renowned personalities – were present, including Kalidasa who had written the Abhijnanashakuntala, Raghuvamsha and Meghaduta.Vatsyayana had written the Kamasutra during this period.
Stone carvings of deities, including those of Hinds, of Buddha, and of the Jain tirthankaras came about during this period with Mathura and Gandhara emerging as centres. Fa Hien, the Chinese traveller visited India during the reign of Chandragupta-II and described many of these achievements.
Introduces ‘zero’, pi, trigonometry and quadratic equations.
Heliocentric model of solar system, moon’s reflection of sunlight, earth’s circumference, solar and lunar eclipses.
Length of sidereal year
Composes Pancha Siddhantika, Brihat Samhita, Brihat Jataka
Writes Sushruta Samhita – foundation of ayurveda
Composes Abhijnana Shakuntalam, Raghuvamsha, Meghaduta
Composes Kamasutra