Ancient World

History of Kerala

Known today as the Spice Garden of India, Kerala had prominent trading posts with the ancient Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Arabs, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans.

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Kerala has a history of being an important exporter of spices since 3000 BCE. The name Keralaputra is mentioned on Emperor Ashoka’s rock inscriptions of 3rd century BCE, referring to the Cheras who had ruled over Kerala, and is the first known reference to the name Kerala.
The Rig Veda’s Aitareya Aranyaka is the earliest Sanskrit work to mention Kerala. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Skanda Purana. Katyayana in 4th century BC and Patanjali in 2nd century BC too refer to the region. Greco-Roman trade maps refer to Keralaputra as Celobotra.

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ORIGIN OF THE LAND
Marine fossils found near Changanacherry have led to the conclusion that Kerala may have been under the sea in the ancient past. Evidence of pre-history, that is, the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Stone Ages, has been found in Kerala.

Dolmens, which are, large vertical stones supporting a horizontal stone were found in Idukki. Although archaeologists do not know their purpose, what they do know is that these date from the Neolithic age, that is, the New Stone Age which began about 10,200 BC and ended between 4500 and 2000 BC.

Locally, they are called muniyara, from muni which stands for sage and ara, meaning dolmen. Rock engravings in Wayanad’s Edakkal caves too date back to 6000 BCE. It is also possible that Kerala had interacted with the Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.

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Trade and Settlements
Sumerian records show that Kerala was a prominent exporter by 3000 BC, interacting with the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Arabs and Phoenicians. By the time the world entered the Christian Era, Greeks and Romans too were trading for Kerala’s spices. In addition, the Cheras who ruled over Kerala were trading with China and West Asia.
marayoordolmenSangam literature speaks of Roman exchange of gold for pepper. According to Pliny the Elder, with favourable South West monsoon winds, Kerala could be reached from the Red Sea ports in 40 days. Muziris, also known as Muciri, Mahodayapuram or Makotai was a flourishing sea port at the mouth of the River Periyar, and was later submerged by the sea. Nelcynda and Berkarai were two other Kerala sea ports.
At the time, Kerala was known to foreign regions as Malabar and some of these visitors established coastal settlements here. Some married local women, forming the Mappila communities, with Muslim, Syrian Christian and Jewish settlers.
The Cochin Jews believe that they are descendants of those who had fled Jerusalem’s destruction during the first century AD. The Saint Thomas Christians trace their ancestry to converts by Saint Thomas, one of Christ’s 12 disciples.

Dynasties of Kerala
edakkal_stone_age_carvingThe Early Cheras are believed to have ruled from 4th century BCE to 5th century CE over large parts of current-day Kerala, and Coimbatore and Salem districts. They were contemporaries to the Chola, Pandya, Tamiraparani and Satiyaputra. The Chera capital was Vanchi, which was either Vanchimutur or near Muziris.
Buddhism and Jainism had reached Kerala by the Christian Era. During the Sangam period, between 4th century BC and 2nd century AD, Brahmins settled in central Kerala and the Nambudiri community emerged.
The Ay dynasty had ruled from the 3rd century BC to 1200 CE from Nagercoil to Thiruvilla with Kollam as their capital. Weakened by Pandyan attacks during the 7th and 8th centuries, they declined. The Ay kingdom, particularly Venad, had been a buffer between the Cheras and the Pandyas and the weakened Ay dynasty became part of the Second Chera kingdom.
The Kulasekharas were also known as the Second Cheras, Later Cheras or Perumals and ruled between the 8th and the 12th centuries.

It is during their reign that Kerala emerged distinct from Tamils. Nair leaders ruled over provinces under the ruler.
Wars between the Cheras and the Cholas during the 11th century led to the decline of foreign trade and Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the region. Caste divisions hardened into divisive lines. Chola invasions destroyed Kollam in the 11th century and Mahodayapuram fell during a subsequent battle, causing the Chera ruler Rama Varma Kulasekhara to shift his capital to Kollam. Hence, it is believed that he, the last emperor of the Chera dynastry may have founded the Venad royal house.
The Later Pandyas and Later Cholas gained control although Ravi Varma Kulasekhara regained control briefly during the 14th century. His death led to the rise of the Nair leaders in Samuthiri, Venad and Kochi.
Thrippapur and Chirava, which were branches of the Ay dynasty, merged into the Venad family during the latter half of the 12th century with the former having authority over the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, among others. Travancore was developed by Maharaja Marthanda Varma who belonged to the Thrippapurs, by expanding Venad during the 18th century.

Colonial Powers
vascodagamaWith Vasco Da Gama’s arrival in Kozhikode, began a period of Portuguese trade dominance. During the 16th century, they established a factory and fort in the kingdom of Kozhikode which belonged to the Samuthiris. But, the Portuguese fell out with the Maharaja and were defeated.
During the 18th century, the French began controlling Mahe. After being captured by the Brisith twice, it was handed back to the French.
The Dutch weren’t far behind. During the 17th and 18th centuries, they defeated the Portuguese, but they themselves were weakened by battles with King Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family and the Travancore king gained greater power.
During the 18th century, Hyder Ali took control of Kozhikode. But, his son, Tipu Sultan was forced to cede control over Malabar district and South Kanara to the British during the late 18th century. The British turned Cochin and Travancore into princely states, and Malabar and South Kanara became part of the Madras Presidency.
Uprisings against the British continued through the 19th and 20th centuries. When India achieved independence, the Travancore and Cochin kingdoms joined the nation. On 1st November 1956, Kerala was formed, bringing together large parts of these two kingdoms and Malabar district.

History of Iceland

Icelands are Norse origin stock and Iceland is 7th richest in the world on per capita GDP and also boasts of world’s oldest parliament

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Iceland’s history goes back to the 8th or the 9th century when Celic monks are believed to have arrived on the island. Subsequently, Naddod, a Norwegian-Faroese Viking is credited with discovering Iceland. Later, when the Swede Garoar Svavarsson was driven to Iceland by a storm, he circumnavigated the land, establishing it as an island.
In 871, Ingolfr Arnarson, a chieftain arrived from Norway with his wife and brother, and established the first permanent settlement in Reykjavik. Later, Norwegians and Scandinavians arrived with their slaves, who were largely Irish or Scottish, and by 930, settlement was complete.
Iceland has no standing army and has a coast guard who takes care of its defence. With a population of over 300,000, it is sparsely populated and is home to active volcanoes.

NORWEGIAN RULE
In 930, the Althing, the Icelandic parliament was established with legislative and judicial powers over the Icelandic commonwealth, making it the world’s oldest parliament.

During this period, the region experienced the medieval warm period and when Erik Thorvaldsson, also known as Erik the Red, was banished from Iceland for three years, he spent them on Greenland.
He later established a permanent settlement there with other settlers.
Meanwhile, under pressure from the King of Norway, Christianity was adopted in Iceland by the end of the

10th century and it co-existed with Norse paganism. It was only in 1117 that slavery was abolished.
During the 13th century, Iceland came under the Norwegian crown since Iceland’s commonwealth could no longer deal with the now stronger chieftains. From Norway, control over Iceland passed to the Kalmar Union of Norway, Denmark and Sweden during the late 14th-early 15th century and Iceland came under Danish control.

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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
Iceland is a land of active volcanoes since it is located on the mid-Atlantic Ridge and is also located over a hot spot. Thirteen of its 30 active volcanic systems have erupted since permanent settlements began on the island. Over the past 500 years alone, its volcanoes have spewed one-third of the entire lava output of the world.
Mount Hekla which was dormant for 250 years, erupted in 1104, covering half of Iceland with material composed of ash, cinders and volcanic blocks, causing devastation. Over the centuries, Hekla continued to erupt.
Volcanic fissures in Laki erupted in 1783, leading to the death of over 50 per cent of the livestock over the years and one fourth of the population due to famine.
BLACK DEATH
Black death caused by the bubonic plague which had hit Europe during the 14th century reached Iceland in the early 15th century, killing half its population between 1402 and 1404. It hit again in 1494, killing half the population this time too. In 1707, small pox killed a quarter of the population.
THE DECLINE
Lutheranism was imposed on Iceland by the King of Denmark during the 16th century and it continues to be the primary religion on the island. A period of decline followed during the 17th and 18th centuries with Denmark granting Danish merchants monopoly on trade with Iceland.
The trade restrictions, combined with volcanic eruptions, disease, deforestation, infertile soil and raids by pirates who also abducted the Icelandic people into slavery led to the island’s decline. Iceland became one of Europe’s poorest nations, relying largely on fishing.
In 1787, Danish trade monopoly ceased, yet it was only in 1855 that Denmark granted Iceland the right to free trade.
INDEPENDENCE
Although Denmark and Norway separated in the early 19th century as a result of the Napoleonic wars, Iceland continued under Denmark’s rule. Climate turned colder and over 20 per cent of Icelandic people emigrated to North America. Towards the middle of the century, the independence movement gained momentum under Jon Sigurosson and Iceland gained limited home rule by the end of the century, moving towards greater power by the early 20th century.

Although Denmark recognised Iceland’s sovereignty, it continued to handle foreign policy matters and Danish embassies functioned as Iceland’s embassies too. Iceland, like Denmark remained neutral during the second world war until Germany occupied Denmark.

At this juncture, Iceland took control of its foreign affairs. Britain invaded Iceland, violating Iceland’s neutrality and passed its control to United States in 1941.
Two years after Iceland became a republic in 1944, the allied forces left the island.
But troops of the United States returned when riots erupted on Iceland’s joining the NATO, once again leaving the island in 2006.

In 2008, Iceland suffered a financial crisis and its three largest banks collapsed. By 2011, the nation stabilised and driven by a strong rise in tourism, it rebounded to the pre-financial crisis levels. Based on different estimates, tourism constitutes anywhere between 5 and 10 per cent of Icelandic GDP.
In 2016, tourists constituted 4.5 times the island’s population, bringing in nearly 30 per cent of the nation’s export revenue. Industrialisation and liberalisation led to substantial development and the nation’s per capita GDP ranked 7th in the world in 2016.
COD WARS
Iceland depends heavily on the fishing industry and fisheries constitute 40 per cent of exports which is more than 12 per cent of Icelandic GDP. Hence, Iceland is sensitive to fish products.

The first Cod war broke out between United Kingdom and Iceland when the latter expanded its fishing zone from 4 to 12 nautical miles. It lasted from 1958 to 1961 and ended after they came to an agreement.
The second Cod war arose in 1972 when Iceland extended its fishing zone to 50 nautical miles. This dispute was resolved in 1973.
The third Cod war broke out between the two nations in 1975 when the United Nations Conference of the Law on the Sea supported a 100-nautical mile limit to territorial waters and Iceland extended its limit to 200 nautical miles.
An agreement was reached in 1976 when NATO mediated between the two nations.

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The VIKING Age

The name Viking brings up the image of seafaring savage warriors who plundered and destroyed regions of Europe. They had also been traders and settlers whose women enjoyed greater freedom and rights

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Between the 8th and the 11th centuries, seafaring Vikings expanded from Scandinavia and came to be known across Europe first as warriors, then as explorers and traders. It was the Viking age.
Scandinavia comprises present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Sailing across the Norwegian and the Baltic Seas, the Vikings formed settlements in the Shetland, Orkney, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and in North America in Newfoundland, among others.

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Norse names like Egilsay, Ormskirk, Meols, Snaefell, Ravenscar, Vinland and more exist to this day. English words like Thursday, which stands for Thor’s day, axle, crook, berserk, skerry, ransack are a few of the Old Norse words.
The Vikings had not left a literary legacy, hence what is known of them comes from archaeological evidence and from Western Europe which was literate and came in touch with them.

WARRIORS AND RULERS
The Viking raids began during the reign of Charlemagne, King of the Franks, lending credence to the

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theory that their expansion from Scandinavia began with Charlemagne’s use of terror to spread Christianity among the pagans. This in turn led to Viking resistance and desire for revenge.

The other theory is that they simply expanded during a period when the other regions were weak and Viking ships travelled easily, facing little opposition on the seas. The fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of Islam had affected trade between Western Europe and Eurasia, leaving room for the Vikings.
While the Norwegians moved north and westward towards Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes moved to England and France and the Swedes to the east towards Kiev. The Rurik dynasty controlled the regions in Slavic and Finno-Ugric dominated areas of Eastern Europe as well as Kiev in Russia.
Vikings were the ancestors of the Normans who ruled over parts of Northern France during the 10th century. King Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England traces his ancestry to Denmark while Sweyn Forkbeard and Cnut the Great became kings of England during the 11th century.
Emissaries from Sweden visited Byzantium during the 9th century and Scandinavians formed a large part of the Varangian Guard, the imperial bodyguard of Byzantium.

CULTURE
Three socio-economic classes, the Thralls, Karls and Jarls comprised Viking society with some mobility between the latter two. Thralls were slaves who worked for the Karls and the Jarls, tending to daily chores and heavy construction.
Karls were peasants owning farms and cattle while Jarls were the wealthy aristocracy, owning large estates and horses and were involved in administration and politics. When Jarls died, sometimes the Thralls in the households were killed and buried next to them. There were also the felag in civil and military.

Women held free status with the paternal aunt, niece and granddaughter having the right to inherit the property of a dead man. An unmarried woman with no male relatives or sons could inherit property and be the head of the family. When she turned 20, an unmarried woman had the right to decide her place of residence, although the clan decided whom she married.

Widows had the same status as unmarried women while married women could divorce and remarry. A free woman could live with a married man and have children with him without marrying him and these children held the same status as those born within a marriage. Women acted as priestesses and oracles, they were poets and rune masters, merchants and medicine women. The introduction of Christianity brought these practices to an end.

The Vikings ate cured, smoked and whey-preserved meat, including beef, mutton, pork, horse meat, sausages, hens, game birds, seafood of whales and walrus among others, bread, porridge, milk products, vegetables, fruits, berries and nuts. They used herbs and spices.
They liked music and played the harp, fiddle, lyre and the lute. Sports was encouraged, involving weapons and combat skills, mountain climbing, swimming, skiing and ice skating, horse fighting and a game similar to hockey. They played board and dice games too.
The Vikings did not stick to a single method of dealing with their dead, they buried them in the ground, or with mounds of earth or stones raised over the graves, they had ship burials and cremation, depending on local customs.

Norsemen sailed the river Volga, trading in furs, tusks, seal fat, which functioned as a sealant for boats, and in slaves. Silver was the primary metal for trade and they bought spices, glass, silk and wine.

TRADERS
Norsemen sailed the river Volga, trading in furs, tusks, seal fat, which functioned as a sealant for boats, and in slaves. Silver was the primary metal for trade and they bought spices, glass, silk and wine.
By the end of the 11th century, Christianity became legitimate, Denmark, Norway and Sweden took their independent identities and administrative centres, market sites and monetary economies emerged under English and German influence.
With the Church disapproving, slavery, which had been a driving force behind Viking raids, fell and raids lessened.

RUNESTONES
The Vikings wrote on runestones, leaving behind a record of the times. The Norse knew the runor, an alphabet that was not standardised but built on sound. While some runic inscriptions recorded Viking expeditions and the people who took part in them, others recorded those who died in these expeditions. The one by the Dane, Harald Bluetooth records the conquest of Denmark and Norway and Denmark’s conversion to Christianity.
SHIPS
Used in warfare and exploration, the long ships, which have been synonymous with Vikings, were agile and had oars and sails to navigate even without the wind. With a long, narrow hull and shallow draught, they could easily land troops in shallow water.
The knarr were merchant vessels and carried cargo with their broader hulls, deep draughts and fewer oars which were needed only to manoeuvre. The Viking built the beitass which was a spar mounted on the sail so that they could sail against the wind.
MYTHS
HELMETS: Viking helmets did not have horns or wings although they may have been worn for rituals. Their helmets were conical and were of hard leather with wood or metal reinforcement.
SAVAGES: The Viking image of dirty, unclean savages is untrue. They fought in a disordered style of fighting which, it is believed, was done to shock the enemy.
SKULLS AS DRINKING VESSELS: The Vikings did not drink out of the skulls of defeated enemies. The myth emerged from the mistranslation of a poem which referred to drinking horns.

European Huns

Feared nomadic warriors and accurate mounted archers, the European Huns played a role in the decline of the Roman Empire.

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The Huns rode the lands of East Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia from the first to the 7th century AD. Originally, they lived to the east of the Volga River in what was then Scythia. Nomadic and pastoral in nature, they were feared warriors known for their horsemanship and accurate mounted archery. They rode horses, giving them speed in their charges and retreating as suddenly as they attacked, leaving their opponents confused.
Not until Attila the Hun were they united under a single king. Rather, they had comprised groups of warrior bands who integrated easily with other tribes to increase their strength.

ASIAN ORIGIN
While some scholars disagree, it is believed that the Huns of Europe were connected to the Xiongnu who lived to the north of China. Tribes from Mongolia are believed to have migrated to the northern parts of Central Asia during the 2nd or 3rd century AD and to Europe during the 4th century.

Both the Huns and the Xiongnu used bronze cauldrons like the people of the Steppes did. But, other practices differed between the two.
While the Xiongnu sported long pony tails, the Huns did not.
The Huns practiced the act of artificially elongating the skulls while the Xiongnu did not.

THE HUN INVASIONS
The Huns came from the eastern side of the River Volga.

From the time that they invaded Europe, the Huns dominated central and south-eastern Europe for 70 years.
Between the Volga and the River Don were the Alani who, like the Huns, were warriors and pastoral people in addition to being well-known horse-breeders.
The Huns overran them when they emerged from beyond the River Volga during the 4th century. Those that survived the slaughter either submitted to the Huns or fled across the Don.

By the 5th century, the Huns were united under King Rua, also known as Rugila. His nephews Bleda and Attila succeeded him on his death.
Between the Rivers Don and Dniester lived the Ostrogoths, that is the Eastern Goths. When the Huns attacked them, most surrendered while the rest fled across the Dniester. The Huns then defeated the Visigoths, that is the Western Goths who lived in Romania. The Visigoths went to the lower Danube and sought Roman asylum with the Eastern Goths and other tribes following them.

Bleda died in 445 AD, and it is not known whether Attila had murdered his brother. Attila took full control and in 447 AD, attacked the Eastern Roman Empire once again. Beset with internal problems, the Empire could not withstand the Huns although Constantinople was saved.

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The Huns had now reached the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire by the River Danube. They forced a treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire in 435 AD, earning trading rights and an annual tribute from the Romans. In addition, the Romans gave over refugees from the Huns to execution. The Huns also acted as mercenaries, fighting for the Empire.
In 440 AD, the Romans did not honour the treaty and the Huns attacked them. A truce was signed in 441 AD, but was breached yet again. This time, the Hunnish attack took them close to Constantinople. After a defeat, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II gave in to Hun demands and they returned richer to their lands.

ATTILA THE HUN
Bleda died in 445 AD, and it is not known whether Attila had murdered his brother. Attila took full control and in 447 AD, attacked the Eastern Roman Empire once again. Beset with internal problems, the Empire could not withstand the Huns although Constantinople was saved. The Huns wreaked havoc on the Balkans and drove into Greece going up to Thermophylae. In 449 AD, they were forced to retreat because of disease and the Romans agreed to pay a large tribute in gold.
The Huns though were on good terms with the Western Empire. But, when in 450 AD, the Roman Emperor decided to marry off his sister Honoria to a Roman senator, she wrote to Attila for help, sending a ring along with the plea. Choosing to see it as a proposal for marriage, Attila asked for half the Western Roman Empire as dowry. When the Emperor stated that the proposal was not legitimate, Attila sent an emissary to say that he would come to claim her.
In 451 AD, Attila entered Gaul and continued towards the west, going through Paris and laying siege to Orleans. The joint Roman-Visigoth armies clashed with the Huns at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in which Attila suffered his only defeat.
In 452 AD, too, Attila made the same demand and entered northern Italy. The Roman Emperor negotiated with him for peace.

XIONGNU

The Xiongnu were nomadic pastoral tribes who lived to the north of China. By the end of the 3rd century BC, the tribes joined together and dominated Central Asia up to 2nd century AD, ruling over much of Siberia and Mongolia. Their attacks on China led to the construction of the Great China Wall although it could not fully stop their attacks.
Like the Huns, the Xiongnu too were mounted warriors and archers with the ability to gather hundreds of thousands of warriors for their intrusions into North China. The Chinese chariots were no match for their flexibility and ease of movement.The attacks continued until the Han Emperor Wudi sent his warriors into central China to fight the nomads and build alliances with the Xiongnu’s enemies.
The Xiongnu split eventually and the eastern horde submitted to the Chinese while the western horde moved towards Central Asia. The Tujue, who were the dominant nomad people of Mongolia in the 7th century, claim to be descendants of the Xiongnu. Some of the latter’s customs are similar to Turkish customs. Hence, some historians believe that the western Xiongnu may have been the ancestors of the European Turks, yet others believe that the Xiongnu are the European Huns.

Italy had undergone a famine and if Attila were to attack Rome, he would need supplies from Italy. Further, his troops whom he had left behind to guard home territories were defeated by the Eastern Roman Empire which led him to retreat.
Once again, the Eastern Roman Emperor stopped payment of tribute and Attila prepared to attack Constantinople. But, in 453 AD, he died of a hemorrhage on his wedding night.
The Huns lost their power within a year of Attila’s death and any trace of them disappeared within a few centuries

Ayodhya

Ayodhya, the birth place of Lord Rama, is one of the seven important Hindu pilgrimage sites.

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Once capital of Kosala kingdom of the Ikshvaku dynasty, Ayodhya was also known as Saket or heaven. Lord Rama’s reign over Ayodhya is considered a golden period and often referred to as Rama Rajya for its good governance, prosperity and happiness.

Situated 8km from Faizabad, it is on the right bank of river Sarayu. Founded by Manu, according to Ramayana, its existence dates back to 9,000 years.

According to other sources, it was founded by King Ayudh after whom it was named. Its first ruler was Ikshvaku, the son of Vaivasvata Manu and the lineage continued to Harischandra, the king epitome of truthfulness. It was his descendant Bhagiratha who through penance to Brahma brought the Ganges down to earth so that he may perform the ceremony for his ancestors.

King Raghu was one of his descendants after whom the dynasty came to be called Raghuvamsa. King Raghu’s grandson was Dasaratha, father of Lord Rama.

It is believed that at Gopratara Tirtha, Lord Rama had entered the waters of river Sarayu to ascend to heaven. Ayodhya is part of Saptapuri, the seven important pilgrimage sites for Hindus.

RULERS OF AYODHYA
Five Jain tirthankaras were born in Ayodhya – Rishabhanatha, Ajitanatha, Abhinandananatha, Sumatinatha and Anantanatha, the first, second, third, fourth and 14th tirthankaras. During Buddha’s time, the city was called Saketa and was ruled by King Prasenjit. Saketa flourished during the Mauryan rule although it was attacked by a Greek expedition in 190 BC with Panchala and Mathura allying with the Greeks. Later, it came under the rule of the Deva and Datta kings and the Gupta rulers. Kumaragupta or Skandagupta moved the capital from Pataliputra to what was by now known as Ayodhya. The Huns damaged the city during the reign of Narasimhagupta but were later driven out. In 1226 AD, Ayodhya became the capital of Awadh in the Delhi Sultanate.
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BABRI MASJID
It is said Ram Janmabhoomi temple which marked the birthplace of Lord Rama was replaced by a mosque – the Babri Masjid – in 1528 AD by the Mughals. Records state that Hindus and Muslims worshipped at the site; Muslims within the mosque and Hindus outside the fence on a platform. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad launched a movement to reclaim the temple and the matter is under dispute.
AYODHYA TODAY
Today, Ayodhya is a city in Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. According to the 2011 census, its population was 55,890 of which 31,705 were males and 24,185 females. With female sex ratio of 763 to the state’s average of 912 and the nation’s 940, Ayodhya has one of the poorest sex ratios. Yet, literacy rate at 78.15 per cent is higher than that of the state’s 67.68 per cent and the nation’s 74.04 per cent.
AYODHYA ACCORDING TO RAMAYANA
Sage Valmiki describes the city of Ayodhya in the Bala Kanda of Ramayana as follows:
The great kingdom of Kosala of Emperor Dasaratha is situated on the banks of the river Sarayu. It is a kingdom that brings joy and is filled with money and cereals. The city is renowned around the world and was built by Manu, the first man and sage-king.
The city’s length is of 12 yojanas, that is, around 120 miles. Its breadth is three yojanas, that is about 30 miles. It enjoys well-designed highways that are kept wet and with flowers strewn all over them. Gateways and archways surround the city. Buildings within the city have well-laid front yards. The city holds within itself machinery, weapons, and craftsmen. A wide fort wall encircles the city like an ornament.
Ayodhya played host to many who eulogised it. It has many fortified areas and its own flag. Dancers and artists walk on its roads and the city is surrounded by gardens, marsh land and mango trees.
Neither trespassers, nor invaders can cross her due to deep moats. The city is filled with horses, camels, cows, and donkeys. Many provincial kings come to the city to pay their dues. Travellers and traders from other countries too come to the city.
Precious gems adorn the buildings. These multi-storey structures fill the city like in Amaravati, the city of Indra.
Ayodhya is a picturesque city in its planning to look like an eight-faced game-board called ashtapadi, with beautiful women moving around the city. Precious gems can be seen heaped about and the seven-storeyed buildings are a beautiful sight.
It is a dense city, packed with houses and no piece of land has gone unutilized. Buildings are constructed on land that is levelled well. Rice is aplenty and drinking water tastes sweet as sugarcane juice.
Great drums fill the city with their drumbeats, so do the mridangam, the cymbals, the veena and other stringed instruments which turn the city into one of the unique cities on earth.
Buildings in Ayodhya well-planned and filled with the best of people. Ayodhya’s archers skilful and they don’t kill a lone being with their arrows, nor do they kill one who does not have a predecessor or a successor in the family, nor a person who is fleeing nor by listening to the target. Hence, their skill and acumen is benevolent. They kill roaring lions, tigers and wild boars with their sharp weapons or with their bare arms. Ayodhya is filled with such archers and fast chariot warriors.
Vedic scholars who fill the city, worship the ritual fire and burn three sacred fire continuously. Brahmins, who are scholars in Vedas and the six vedangas, live in the city. So, do other great souls who are like great saints and donate freely and abide by the truth.
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Sveta Hunas – White Huns

Sveta Hunas are said to be the Hephthalites. Believed to be Eastern Iranian in origin, they had attacked India during the period of the Gupta Empire.

Words: Priya Narayan

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The White Huns or Sveta Hunas, as they were known in India, are believed to be the Hephthalites with a possibility of having an alliance with the Xionites. By the first half of the 6th century, they controlled territories in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, India and China. It is said that they were the only Huns with fair complexions, hence deriving the name Sveta Hunas.

The name Hephthalites originates from ancient Green sources and they were also known as Ephthalite, Abdel or Avdel. In India though, they were known as Sveta Hunas. The Chinese called them Yada. Older Chinese sources called them Hua or Hudun and describe them as a tribe beyond the Great Wall. Some historians disagree with the idea that the Hephthalites were the Sveta Hunas.

East Iranian Origin
While historians had at one time suggested that the Hephthalites were Turkish descendants, later beliefs state that they were from East Iran. The Hephthalites’ spoken language is said to be an East Iranian language which was different from the Bactrian language written in the Greek alphabet. This was the official language minted on coins. The names of the Hephthalites too were Iranian. After the Hephthalites lost their supremacy, it was the turn of the Central Asian nomads who spoke Turkic languages, which could have led to the belief of their Turkish descent.

It is said that they were not connected to the European Huns and may have called themselves Huns to scare their enemies. These White Huns occupied regions that were far from the European Huns, nor were they nomads.

They were settlers. Unlike the tribes of the European Huns, the White Huns were ruled by a king, they had a constitution and observed justice in their dealings within themselves and with their neighbours.

Nobles were buried rather than cremated. The White Huns also used a Turkic language and royal titles which shows the influence of the Turkic people. They did not recognise Buddhism and often destroyed Buddhist monasteries.

Chinese chronicles though state a theory that they could be the descendants of the tribes who remained behind after people fled from the Xiongnu. The Xiongnu were tribes north of the Great Wall who attacked China frequently. They are believed by some historians to be connected to the European Huns.

History of White Huns
After defeating the Scythians by 425 AD, the White Huns invaded Persian regions. By 485, Persia had become their subject with the defeat of the Sassanid king, Peroz-I. During the wars between 503 and 513, they had to leave Persia and were fully defeated in 557 by Khosrau-I.

During the first half of the 5th century, they were established in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kunduz in Afghanistan, earlier known as Badian, was their capital. Later, their emperor Mihirakula made his capital in Sialkot of Pakistan, then known as Sakala.

They entered India through the Khyber Pass and Skandagupta, son of Kumaragupta-I defeated the White Huns, in 455 AD.

Attacks by the White Hun kings Toramana and his successor Mihirakula drained the Gupta empire and the dynasty went into decline after Skandagupta’s death in 467 AD.
In 480 AD, the White Huns attacked once again from the northwest and overran most of the Gupta Empire by 500 AD, penetrating north and central India.

Although weakened, the Guptas resisted the Huns and Toramana was defeated by Bhanugupta in 510. A coalition by Narasimhagupta and the Malwa king Yashodharman drove the Huns out of India in 528 AD.

While the Huns were horse-mounted archers, leading to speed of attack, the Gupta armies were disciplined and were believed to have deployed a combination of tactics, using elephants, armoured cavalry and foot archers.

Yudhishthira, the Hun king ruled until 670 when he was replaced by the Kabul Shahi dynasty.

Modern Day
The White Huns are believed to be one of the ancestors of Pashtuns, particularly the Abdali Pashtun tribe. The Pashtun name Abdali or Durrani is said to have descended from the White Huns. It is also believed that they were the ancestors of the Abdal tribe of the Turkmens and the Kazakhs. Although disputed, it is believed that the Rajputs are a mix of the White Huns and the Gurjars.
Hunas in Literature
Kalidasa describes the prowess of Chandragupta Vikramaditya-II as a ruler who had conquered 21 kingdoms. Having conquered the eastern and western regions of India, Vikramaditya went northwards and won over the Parasikas, Hunas and the Kambojas. He then went across the Himalayas and won over the Kinnaras and Kiratas.Kshemendra’s Brihatkathamanjari describes Vikramaditya as having annihilated Mlecchas like the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas and the Hunas.The Mahabharata narrates the incident of Viswamitra attacking sage Vasishta’s cow. Tribes allied to Vasishta attacked Viswamitra’s armies and these include the Hunas along with the Sakas, Yavanas, Savaras, Paundras and Kiratas. There was also mention of Khasas, Chivukas, Pulindas, Chinas and other Mlechchas. This list differs from that of the Valmiki Ramayana though in which the Kambojas, Pahlavas, Haritas were mentioned too.On the second day of the Pandava-Kaurava war in Kurukshetra, it is mentioned that with Yudhishthira stood the Parachcharas, Hunas, Pauravakas, Nishadas, Pisachas, Kundavishas, Mandakas, Ladakas, Tanganas, Uddras, Saravas, Tumbhumas, Vatsas, Nakulas. They stood in the Krauncharuma position decided by Dhrishtadyumna, the Pandava general.
Xionites
The Xionites, also known as Chionites, Huna, Hunni and by other names, are said to be people who spoke Iranian. They arrived from Central Asia to Iran and were influenced by the Kushans and the Bactrians. They posed a threat to the northeastern part of the Sassanid Empire. It is believed that they differed from the Hephthalites. Conjectures are made that the Hephthalites themselves may have been an important tribe of the Xionites. The Xionites followed a form of Buddhism and Shaivism while attributing a living soul to all natural phenomena including plants and inanimate objects.
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