Jesus Christ preached for a little over two years before he was crucified. Yet, today, every third person on earth is a Christian. And, Christian or not, many around the world celebrate Christmas on 25th December.


Herod the Great’s rule was nearing its end. It was sometime between 6-4 BC. A Jewish king and a Roman vassal, Herod had been ruling Judea since 37 BC. Far away in Nazareth of Galilee, Mary, wife of Joseph, the carpenter, was pregnant.
Ceaser Augustus, the Roman Emperor couldn’t have chosen a worse time to decree that all the Roman land must be taxed. Trouble was, people were taxed not where they lived, but where they were born. Joseph had no choice but to make the journey to Bethlehem with Mary. And in Bethlehem, Jesus was born.


When the three wise men came from the east of Jerusalem, asking, “Where is the King of Jews who is born?” King Herod was worried.
He asked the wise men to return with word of the child.
Following the star that appeared in the sky, they reached the manger in Bethlehem where baby Jesus was. After wishing the child and gifting treasures, they heeded the warning that came in a dream and left without informing King Herod. The furious King ordered all children below the age of two years to be killed.
Fearing for his child, Joseph fled to Egypt with Mary and Jesus, returning to Nazareth only when King Herod was dead.


When Jesus was 30 years old, he travelled from Nazareth to Capernaum, a village on the north corner of the Sea of Galilee. Capernaum was also the home town of his apostles Peter, James, Andrew, John and Mathew.
This was the year when John the Baptist baptised Jesus. It is said that Jesus was now full of the Holy Ghost, and he returned to Jordan. He then spent 40 days in the Desert of Judea, resisting the Devil’s temptations.

When the king imprisoned John the Baptist, Jesus returned to Nazareth. Here, he proclaimed in a synagogue that he is the bread of life which comes down from heaven. The offended citizens threw him out of the city for, how could a mere carpenter utter these words!

After the king had John the Baptist beheaded, Jesus began to preach, saying, “The time is fulfilled, the Kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.”

Jesus moved to Capernaum in 29 AD. For the next two years, he travelled, preaching in the synagogues of Galilee. He performed miracles, turning water into wine at a wedding in Cana of Galilee; he walked on the sea and he saved his disciples on the ship when a great storm rose. He healed people, giving sight to a blind man and healing a man suffering from leprosy.By now, people followed him from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and from beyond Jordan. On Galilee’s hillside in Capernaum, he selected his 12 disciples. Standing in their company, he spoke to the great numbers of people who came to hear him speak.


“Judge not, that you be not judged. For with what judgement you judge, you shall be judged; and with what measure you give, it shall be measured to you again.”


When Jesus was teaching at the temple, the people brought a woman to him and asked, “This woman committed adultery. Moses has commanded that such a person should be stoned. What do you say?”
Jesus said, “He that is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone at her.”

Meanwhile, Jesus was making enemies of the priests. In January, 30 AD, he raised Lazarus from the dead in the town of Bethany to which Mary Magdalene belonged. Lazarus had been dead for four days and was laid in a cave with a stone on it.
Hearing of this miracle, the chief priests worried, “What do we do, for this mad man does many miracles. If we let him alone, all men will believe in him and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.” They plotted his death during the Jewish Passover which was soon to come.
While he travelled in Galilee, Jesus made the prophecy about his last days. He left Galilee for the last time. In March 30 AD, he passed in Jericho and on the Sunday before Passover, he rode into Jerusalem on a donkey (the messiah, according to Jewish tradition) where the people welcomed him. The temple priests notice this excitement.

With his disciples, he went into the Mount of Olives and came to Gethsemane. There he prayed and they slept. It is here that Judas betrayed him, coming with men and officers who bound Jesus and took him away.
The priests led Jesus into the hall of judgement and handed him over to Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor. Pilate found no fault with him, but the people wouldn’t back down from their demand for crucifixion. It was the preparation of the Passover and the sixth hour.
Seeing that he could not prevail upon them, Pilate gave the sentence. The Governor’s soldiers led Jesus to the common hall, stripped him and crowned him with a crown of thorns. They placed a timber cross on his shoulders and Jesus carried it to Calvary with his mother Mary, watching him with the crowd.
The soldiers laid him on the cross, tied him to it, nailed his hands and feet and crucified him. It was the third hour on Friday, 15th April 30 AD.
People said, “You who were to destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself. If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
To which, Jesus said, “Father, forgive them for they know not what they do.”
His mother, her sister, Mary Magdalene and John stood at the cross.
At the ninth hour, Jesus cried out, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”
When he was thirsty, a sponge was filled from a vessel full of vinegar, put on a reed and given to him. Jesus said, “Father, into your hands, I commend my spirit. It is finished.” He bowed his head and gave up the ghost.


Kalabhairav Jayanti

God of Time and the fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva, Kala Bhairava kills the ego and takes one towards liberation



Kala Bhairava is the fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva and is the wandering form of Lord Shiva. His birth is celebrated on the day of Kalabhairav Jayanti.
Also known as Mahakala Bhairavashtami and Kalabhairav Ashtami, Kalabhairav Jayanti is observed on the eighth day of Krishna Paksha (waning moon phase) during the month of Kartik. This year, it falls on 10th November. It is considered more auspicious when the day occurs on a Tuesday or Sunday, the days dedicated to Kala Bhairav.
He is also known as Dandapani, since he holds a rod to punish sinners, and as Swaswa which refers to his mount being a dog. Yet another name for him is Maha Swarna Kala Bhairava and his consort is Bhairavi, the fierce Goddess associated with the ten Mahavidyas.
Kala Bhairava rules the 64 Bhairavas who are grouped under the eight Ashtanga Bhairavas, guarding the eight directions. Each Ashtanga Bhairava heads a group of seven Bhairavas, totaling 64 Bhairavas.

According to the Sringeri Sharada Pitham, the Ashtanga Bhairavas are as follows:Kala Bhairava
Asitanga Bhairava
Samhara Bhairava
Ruru Bhairava
Krodha Bhairava
Kapala Bhairava
Rudra Bhairava
Unmatta Bhairava
Kala Bhairava is known to destroy fear and protect devotees from greed, lust and anger, allowing devotees to seek God within themselves. He is also believed offer protection from enemies and to pilgrims and travellers. It is also believed that worshipping Kala Bhairava nullifies ‘Rahu’ and ‘Shani’ doshas. Kala Bhairava is said to be the Guru of Shani.


Kala Bhairava is known to destroy fear and protect devotees from greed, lust and anger, allowing devotees to seek God within themselves. He is also believed offer protection from enemies and to pilgrims and travellers. It is also believed that worshipping Kala Bhairava nullifies ‘Rahu’ and ‘Shani’ doshas. Kala Bhairava is said to be the Guru of Shani.

Birth of Kala Bhairava
According to the Shiva Mahapuranam, Lords Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva once have a discussion during which Vishnu asks Brahma who the supreme creator of the universe is. Brahma answers that it is himself, and that he, Brahma should be worshipped. He takes pride in his five heads and begins to interfere in Shiva’s work, infuriating the latter.
Kala Bhairava emerges from Shiva’s forehead and cuts off one of Brahma’s heads, leaving him with just four heads. The head remains stuck to Kala Bhairava’s left palm since he had committed the sin of killing Brahma. To make reparations for the sin, Kala Bhairava wanders the world without clothes, seeking alms with the skull as his begging bowl. Finally, his sin is expiated in Varanasi. Kala Bhairava Mandir in Varanasi is the most famous of Bhairava temples.
According to another story, Kala Bhairava is Virabhadra who cut Daksha Prajapati’s head when the latter insulted Lord Shiva. Daksha was the father of Sati Devi who was Lord Shiva’s wife. Unable to bear the insult to Shiva, Sati leaves her mortal body. When grief-filled Shiva carries her body and does the tandav, his dance of destruction, Vishnu cuts her body into 52 parts. The places on earth where these parts fell are the Shakti Peethas. A Kala Bhairava temple or idol exists at each Shakti Peetha.
It is believed that Kala Bhairava is Lord Shiva’s form that controls time. Kala Bhairava is also considered the guardian of Lord Shiva’s temples. In this role, he is known as Kshetra Palaka. Once the temple priest locks the doors of Lord Shiva’s temple, he ceremonially places the keys at Kala Bhairava’s feet and in the morning, receives the keys from him.

The Ritual
On the day of Kalabhairav Jayanti, devotees worship Kala Bhairava, Lord Shiva and Parvati with flowers, fruits and sweets.

Ceremonies in Temples

In temples, Shodashopachar Pujas are performed. In temples of Lord Shiva, puja begins with worshipping Surya and ends with the worship of Bhairava. Bhairava’s worship includes bathing the idol with ghee, lighting a lamp in ghee, and offering red flowers, coconut, honey and boiled food.
At the Bhairav Prasad temple in Vaishno Devi, an image of Kala Bhairava made of gold or silver is immersed in water in a brass pot. The image is worshipped with prayers. Devotees offer gifts to the priest who conducts the puja.
There are eight temples in Varanasi, each dedicated to one aspect of Kala Bhairava. For eight days, each Bhairava is visited which ends with Bhairava Ashtami. On the eighth day, Kala Bhairava is worshipped in his temple. Kala Bhairava is considered Varanasi’s guardian deity. The cloth that covers Kala Bhairava throughout the year, leaving only his face open, is removed on this day and devotees can catch a glimpse of his entire image. A garland of silver skulls adorns the image on the day.

Mantras for Kala Bhairava
”Hrim vatukaya apadudharanaya kuru kuru batukaya hrim.”
“Om hreem vam vatukaaya Aapaduddharanaya vatukaaya hreem”
“Om Hraam Hreem Hroom Hrime Hroum Ksham Kshetrapaalaaya Kaala Bhairavaaya Namaha”

After the puja, they recite the Kala Bhairav Katha. They also perform pujas for their dead ancestors.
Devotees stay up the whole night, narrating stories of Kala Bhairava, Lord Shiva and Parvati.

They chant mantras specific to Kala Bhairava and perform a midnight aarti with drums, bells and conches. Since Kala Bhairava rides on a dog, some feed milk and sweets to dogs.
It is believed that those who undertake a fast on the day will get rid of obstacles in life and gain health and success. Devotees seek forgiveness for their sins. It is believed that one loses the fear of death by worshipping Kala Bhairava on this day. It is also believed that problems within families and with enemies are resolved.

Significance of Kala Bhairava
Signifying the march of time, Kala Bhairava is seen as the destroyer of time. Worshipping Kala Bhairava helps one understand the transitory nature of existence. He is said to be the deity who helps one understand the highest truth of life and how one relates to time.
Kala Bhairava Ashtakam composed by Adi Shankaracharya describes him as the source of knowledge and liberation. He is the deity who destroys greed, attachment, depression, anger and enables one to move towards the lord’s feet.


Many a festival like Ganesh Chaturthi was once limited to a close circle within the family living in villages during the 50s and before. Things began changing slowly as the celebrations spread to towns during the 80s. Today as we move into the 21st century what we witness is the high-decibel extravaganzas that rock us



Hindu festivals are linked to spirituality as according to Hindu Dharma, they increase the sattvikta (spiritual content or purity) in us to build a better society. However, modern man is a different man. Though he now celebrates festivals nearly with the same ardour as he showed in the past his spiritual inclinations sadly have gone down.

During the 1950s and in pre-Independence era, the country’s population was largely confined to villages. Festivals meant a family waking up early, bathing, cleaning the house, making rangolis with rice flour and performing the puja with bhakti and religious fervour.
Special food would be cooked and the festival would be a private and intra-family affair. Going to temples on festival days was limited to bigger festivals like Ram Navami in the South during which there was a special attraction as Ramayana would be recited for nine days by experts whose erudition and humour would be the talk of the town.

And 30 years later in the 1980s, families having lived in villages for centuries had moved to towns and cities.
Living not far from their villages, many of these migrant families were still bound to their roots and were intent on carrying their puja rituals and heritage with them.
Though the practice of buying new clothes, making rangolis, cooking festival delicacies continued, new forms of religious get-togethers came up like community dancing and singing that went with each festival.


In the public mind, garba over shadowed the puja in Navratri; bursting endless firecrackers for Diwali and kite-flying and kite-fighting on Uttarayan. Though these were outward manifestations, the symbolism of religiosity was adhered to.
But, a change had begun and modern man was evolving. Puja and bhakti at home was giving way to festival ritual. Increasing numbers began visiting temples to witness mega celebrations and crowds began to swell. Celebrations counted over worship.

Came the 2010s. Worship at home continued with ardent devotion but there was significant drop in those doing puja. Worship was turning into symbolism and one was content with lighting a lamp or offering flowers rather than go the whole hog in following the rituals.
“Books are available which can tell you the entire story and the significance of the rituals. The point is not devotion in performing the ritual, it pertains to everything we do right from plucking flowers to getting things ready for the puja,” says Sujatha Garimella of Ahmedabad.
Fall in the number of people worshipping at home synchronised with a rise in people thronging to temples on festival days which led to heavy rush and stampedes. But what this meant was festival celebration was not restricted to families at home as it co-opted

the housing societies and brought communities together. Public pandals came into being as a mark of community affair overriding individual worship. It also brought in rivalry: bigger the pandal, larger the crowd and bigger the acclaim.
Navratri is probably the best example in which celebration is at its peak as opposed to worship. Once the mandatory aarti is done, what was meant to be a ritual circling around the lamp and the goddess had turned into mega fun and frolic. Over the nine days of Navratri, fashionable dress and colour codes are agreed upon; garba practice sessions would begin a month in advance; slimming centres making hay with promises of crash weight loss to give a lean look in the Navratri garb.
“A festival celebration is supposed to be about learning to do good to others,” says veteran Wing Commander Aran Kaul. “Since we have taken religion out of the festival, people seem to have dissociated goodness from festival.”
Yet, not all public celebrations are pointless. Those in housing societies get a chance to meet his unknown neighbour leading to knitting the social fabric. Living as we do close to others yet we seem to be strangers. Festival celebrations are probably the only means to bring back the lost personal touch with those who otherwise would be forgotten in an era of modern living.

“In defence services, festivals are quiet affair,” says Wing Commander Kaul. “A small area is demarcated for a temple, mosque or a church and the respective priests conduct the rituals. In the Army, these priests are combatants. In the Air Force they happen to be outsiders. On festival days, while the priest performs the ritual, the Commanding Officer leads the prayer and the Officer may not represent either the region or religion of that festival.
It is heartening to see if for any reason, the priest of one religion is unavailable, the other two priests conducting the ritual. This, I feel is the perfect example of an India that is united socially and spiritually. That is the way a religion is supposed to be.”
The best example of worship at home turning into public celebration was the Ganesh Chaturthi festival. Around the time of the Sepoy Mutiny, Bal Gangadhar Tilak transformed this humble indoor festival into a social function, turning the small clay Ganesha idol immersions into one of huge Ganesha statues being taken around the town to be immersed. It attracted mammoth crowds serving to unite people of all communities at a time when the British had banned such large gatherings.
“During Ganesh Chaturthi, puja is done as per the viddhi (method). Religion is personal, and when we follow it with an understanding of each part of the ritual, it is meaningful and good for our peace and physical health,’ says Anima Palshikar, a resident of Ahmedabad.

“Societies seem to be in competition with neighbouring societies,’ says Anima. This is evident from the noisier celebrations. ‘Sarvajanik’ (community) celebrations have nothing to do with God, retaining none of the original meaning. Festivals are part of the flow of culture from generation to generation, and celebrating these with filmy music and dance misses the spiritual point.”
The idea of making festivals knit the social fabric seems to have gone missing and what one sees today is a tendency to harm the environment, health of public and breach of peace and tranquillity. Following are dismal pointers when festivals turn into disturbance:
Environment turns smoky in Delhi for a week after Diwali from indiscriminate bursting of fire crackers, some of which are noise pollutants and health hazards.
Ganesh Visarjan (immersion) leaves toxic wastes behind in ponds, lakes, and rivers. These water resources are our priceless assets Nature has endowed. All one has done in the name of staging a “festival” is immersing giant, chemically painted Ganeshas, some of which remain partly submerged long after the immersions are over. Then there are the long-winding processions that halt traffic for hours. Religion is a sensitive subject and none dare to speak about the inconvenience it causes for fear of being branded an atheist.
Navratri usually sees high decibels for all the nine days with loud speakers blaring as garbas continue late into the night. Babies, infirm and the sick suffer the most.
Holi is another festival when bonfires are lit on the road that obstructs traffic. Sparks can be seen flying in all directions from these fires and a disaster could be in waiting.
During Uttarayan kite-flying, many birds routinely die as the glass-tinged kite strings (maanza) get entangled in birds’ wings. People too have died riding a two-wheeler when the deadly strings graze the neck. Children too have fallen from terraces, losing their balance over the parapet.
Janmashtami sees gamblers making a quick buck while bhang (edible form of cannabis) is the toast of Maha Shivaratri. The soul of the festival is gone. Instead, it is all about pomp and show and one-upmanship in staging the festival that reflects money and muscle power.



Legendary King Mahabali once ruled Kerala and had sacrificed everything to make his people prosperous and happy. To this day he is remembered for his magnanimity as the 10-day Onam festival is celebrated


Onam is one of the biggest cultural festivals of Kerala celebrated to commemorate the Vamana (dwarf) avatar of Lord Vishnu.
A festival of elaborate colours and rituals, the flower carpet or ‘Pookalam’ is the cynosure of all eyes. Women are attired in traditional sarees called “Mundum Neriyathum” while men in dhotis wear brocaded angavastram over their shoulders.
The first day of Onam starts with an early bath and prayers. The floral decorations continue leading up to Onam festival or Thiruvonam. Lots of cooking take place culminating in a grand feast called Onam Sadya. onamIn Thrikkakara Temple (temple for Vamana) Onam Sadya is served daily with thousands participating in this feast.
This is one of the cultural festivals in India which has plenty of events like grand processions, boat racing and Kaikottikali (one of the most famous group dances of Kerala performed by women).
Onam is derived from the Sanskrit word Shravanam, which is one of the 27 stars and is called Thiruvonam nakshatra in Kerala. “Thiru” refers to Lord Vishnu and Thiruvonam is the day when Lord Vishnu sent the great king Mahabali to the underworld placing his foot on the king’s head.
This year the festival falls in the Chingam month (the first month of the year) of the Kerala calendar and begins on August 25 and goes on till September 4.
To some, Onam is a religious festival; for others, it is a harvest festival. It is believed that King Mahabali ruled from Kerala and Onam celebratesonam_pookalam_india_september_2013 his return each year to the land. The first day marks the welcome to the King who is believed to meet his people on the second day.
Courtyards are plastered with dung and mounds of earth that look like square pyramids, representing Mahabali and Vamana.
The 10 days of celebrations begin with Atham, the first day, then Chithram, Chodhi, Vishakam, Anizham, Thriketa, Moolam, Pooradam, Uthradam, and ends with Thiruvonam. Of these, Atham and Thiruvonam are important.

Beautiful flower arrangements, called onapookalam or pookalam are made in temple premises and at other entrances. Lamps are placed in the centre and at the edges and an umbrella placed over the arrangement. On Atham, only yellow flowers are used in a simple circular design. With each day, the pookalam’s size increases. Traditionally, 10 varieties of flowers were used.

Dance forms traditional to Kerala, including the Thiruvathira, Kummattikali, Pulikali, Thumbi Thullal, Onam Kali as well as Kathakali are performed. Women perform the Thiruvathira in a circle around a lamp. Kummattikali is performed by dancers in colourful masks. In Thrissur, these dancers go in a procession along with elephants. For Onam Kali, dancers arrange themselves in circles around a pole, a tree or a lamp, dancing and singing songs from the epics.
People painted like tigers in bright yellow, red and black, dance the Pulikali, also known as Kaduvakali. The Theyyam dance too is part of Onam.nehru_trophy_boat_race_2012_7778

Vallamkali, the snake boat race, is part of Onam celebrations. Particularly well-known are the races held on the Pampa river, the famous one being in Aranmula.

Onam sadya marks the harvest festival with a lunch on Thiruvonam, the last day. Seasonal vegetables like yam, cucumber and ash gourd, among others are used to prepare a nine-course meal that is served on plantain leaves along with the traditional boiled Kerala rice. The full meal can include fried banana wafers, fried banana pieces coated in jaggery, papad, soups, vegetables and lentils, pickles and chutneys. Traditional dishes like thoran, mezhukkupuratti, kaalan, olan, avial, sambhar, erisheri, moloshyam, sadhya_dsw

rasam, puliseri, kichadi, pachadi and moru are part of the meal, ending with payasam for dessert.

The eleventh and twelfth days, that is, the two days after Thiruvonam are celebrated as third and fourth Onam. Avvittom, the eleventh day signifies Mahabali rising to heaven. On this day, the Onathappan statue, that is, Mahabali’s statue, which is surrounded by flower arrangements throughout the festival, is immersed in water and the flower arrangements are removed. Thrissur is famous for Pulikali, with men in lion masks, dancing through the city on this day. On Chatayam, the 12th day, all celebrations end.smitha_rajan-ananda_sayana


King Mahabali, popularly known as Bali Chakravarthy, was the great-great-grandson of sage Kashyapa and the grandson of Prahlada, who was the son of Hiranyakashyapa and a devotee of Lord Vishnu. When Hiranyakashyapa tries to kill Prahlada, Lord Vishnu appears in Narasimha avatar and saves him.
Mahabali, who was Prahlada’s son, defeats the devas and begins to rule the three worlds. The devas then approach Lord Vishnu, but he refuses to help since Mahabali was not only a just ruler, but also his devotee.
Lord Vishnu comes down as Vamana, a dwarf boy, to test Mahabali’s devotion. Mahabali was performing a yajna and was known to grant any request made during the yajna. Vamana refuses all other material gifts and asks for just enough space for him to place three of his footsteps.
The king’s advisor, Shukracharya advises him against granting the wish, but the king chooses not to go back on his word. When Mahabali agrees, Vamana grows to a tremendous size and in one step, covers the entire earth and in the second step, he covers the entire sky. With nothing left to offer, Mahabali offers himself and Lord Vishnu places his foot on Mahabali’s head, pressing him down to the netherworld, that is, pataal.
He also offers him a boon that the king can visit his lands every year. This is celebrated as Onam, marking his just rule and his humility. King Mahabali is also called Maveli or Onathappan in Kerala.
One of the few temples dedicated to Lord Vishnu’s Vamana avatar, the Thrikkakara temple holds the idol of Vamana, placing his foot on King Mahabali’s head. Thrikkakara is actually Thiru kaal kara, which means, place of the holy foot.
Athachamayam parade marks the beginning of Onam and it begins in Thrippunithura near Kochi and ends in the Vamanamoorthy temple here. Elephants march with drum beats, music and folk art performances, floats and masked people in colourful dresses. This procession was originally headed by the Kochi kings from their palace to the Thrikkakara temple. Traditional scenes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and from the Bible too mark the parade.
Earlier, the Maharaja of Travancore organised Onam festivities at the temple. The festival begins on Atham, the first day when the temple flag is hoisted. It is lowered on the last day. The temple is the centre of Onam festivities and includes performances like Chakyar Koothu, which is a narration of the epics; Ottamthullal, a dance and poetic performance; as well as Kathakali and Mohiniyattam, Kerala’s classical dances. Celebrations include boat races, dances, martial arts, flower designs and Onam sadya is served at the temple for thousands of people.
The Vamana idol is decorated with sandal paste. On each day of celebration, the idol is dressed in each of the 10 avatars of Lord Vishnu, which are, Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama, Balarama, Krishna and Kalki.
On the 9th and 10th days, the Vamana idol is taken in procession atop a ceremonial elephant to the accompaniment of Panchavadyam.


Chalukyas minted coins embossed with Varaha and it was also seen on their royal crest. Cholas and the Vijayanagar empire too adopted Varaha as royal symbols


Varaha avatar is Lord Vishnu’s avatar as a boar and is his third avatar. Popularly known as the avatar that saves Bhudevi from Hiranyaksha, Varaha stands for the earth’s resurrection after the universe dissolves and marks the beginning of a new aeon.
He is worshipped for the triumph of goodness over evil. Varaha Jayanti falls on 24th August this year.

Varaha is at times shown as a boar and at times as a human with a boar’s head. While the first two avatars of Lord Vishnu, matsya and kurma, are shown with a man’s upper body and the animal’s lower body, Varaha and the next avatar, Narasimha are shown with an animal’s head and a man’s body.
In his four arms, Varaha holds the Sudarshan Chakra, conch, mace and a sword or lotus or with the gesture of blessing. Varaha sculptures look towards the right and it is in Vaikuntha Vishnu portrayals that the head is shown turned towards the left.
As Adi Varaha, his right leg rests on snake Ananta with Bhudevi seated on his left lap. As Yajna Varaha, he is seated on a lion throne with consorts, Bhudevi and goddess Lakshmi on either side. As Pralaya Varaha, Bhudevi is depicted with him. When he is depicted with


only goddess Lakshmi, his form is similar to Lord Vishnu’s and he can be identified as Varaha only by his boar’s head. At times, his consort is shown as Varahi, one of the Matrikas, that is mother goddesses. She too is shown with a boar’s head.

Varaha was a form of Lord Brahma, according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka and the Shatapatha Brahmana. In the Ramayana and the Vishnu Purana though, he is referred to as Lord Vishnu’s avatar and that narrative continues today.
When the four Kumaras who are sages, Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana and Sanat kumara, arrive in Vaikuntha, the gatekeepers, Jaya and Vijaya, not only stop them but also laugh at them since the Kumaras look like children and are naked. The Kumaras curse the gatekeepers that they will be born as rakshasas. Lord Vishnu appears before the Kumaras and also assures his gatekeepers that they will be released by one of his avatars.
Jaya and Vijaya are born to sage Kashyapa and Diti as Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashyapa. After a long penance by Hiranyaksha, Lord Brahma grants him his wish that he cannot be killed by humans or a range of animals. Hiranyaksha with his brother creates havoc and hides Bhudevi in the primordial waters.
Lord Vishnu takes the form of Varaha since Hiranyaksha does not list the boar among the animals from which he is protected. Varaha lifts Bhudevi out of the primordial waters on his tusks and after a fierce battle with Hiranyaksha, kills the rakshasa. He, then places Bhudevi in her original position and marries her. Some sources say that they have a son, the rakshasa Narakasura.


Performing the Dwadasi puja will bring health and eliminate fear, confusion and discontent. According to Varaha himself, it is not great yajnas but worship with detachment, concentration and devotion that brings his blessings. Devotees can pray at midnight, at the time of dusk or at midday. They can observe a fast on Dwadasi and offer water, facing the Sun while reciting the ‘Om Namo Narayana’ mantra.

They can offer white flowers with the mantra ‘Sumanah Sumana Grihnna Priyo me Bhagavan Harih, Itena Mantrana Sumano dadat’. Next, they can offer sandalwood paste with the mantra ‘Namosthu Vaishnavey Vyaktavyakta Sugandhi cha, Grahan Grahana Namo Bhagavatey Vaishnavey Anena Mantreya Gandham dadatu. They can then offer incense with the mantra ‘Pravishtey me Dhupadhupanam grihnath Bhagavan Achyutah Anena mantryena Dhupam dadatu’.
– http://www.kamakoti.org

Nav Toran Temple built during the 11th century in Jawad, Madhya Pradesh is said to have a tunnel that went to the Chittorgarh fort. Maharana Pratap is believed to have come periodically through the tunnel to worship Varaha.
Sri Varahaswami Temple in Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh is on the shores of the Swami Pushkarini, the temple pond towards the north of the Venkateswara temple. The location is known as Adi Varaha Kshetra and is based on the legend that when devotees requested Varaha to stay on earth after Satya Yuga, his mount Garuda brings his garden from Vaikuntha to the Venkata hills of Tirumala. Legend also has it that Lord Venkateswara himself had taken Varaha’s permission to reside in the hills. After worshipping Adi Varaha, devotees go for Venkateswara darshan.
Bhuvarahaswami Temple in Srimushanam to the north-east of Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu was built during the 16th century by Krishnappa II, a Thanjavur Nayak king. Varaha deity here is one of the eight self-manifested Swayamvyakta Vaishnava Kshetras.
Adi Varaha Perumal in Tirukkalvanoor in the Kamakshi Amman complex in Kanchipuram and Thiruvidandai near Mahabalipuram are among the divya desams, the 108 Vishnu temples.

Mathura holds the earliest Varaha images, dating back to the 1st and 2nd centuries. Varaha sculptures are found extensively during the 4th to 6th century Gupta period.

Early Varaha sculptures of the 5th century can be seen in the Udayagiri caves in Madhya Pradesh, of the 6th century in the Badami caves of Karnataka, of the 7th century in Mahabalipuram and Ellora and of the 8th century from Bago Pathari which is now in the museum in Gwalior. Although originally found in Southern and Western India, by the 7th century, they were found across India, including locations like Khajuraho, Udaipur and Jhansi.

The Chalukyas from the 6th to 8th century minted coins with Varaha on them and adopted the avatar on their royal crest. During the 9th century, Mihira Bhoja, the Gurjara Pratihara king took the title, Adi Varaha. He too had coins minted with the avatar. The Cholas, from 4th to 13th century, and the Vijayanagar empire from 14th to 17th century too adopted Varaha in their royal symbols. The Aihole pillar carving of Varaha has been identified as the Vijayanagar emblem.


Symbolically Lord Dattatreya is depicted with three heads, six hands, four dogs, standing in front of a cow and tree. In his hands He holds a drum (damaru), discus like weapon (chakra), conch shell (sankh), rosary (japa mala), water vessel (kamandala) and a trident (trisula).
Three heads represent Brahma Tatwa, Vishnu Tatwa and Shiva Tatwa. All powerful creative cause is Brahma, sustaining energy is Vishnu and annihilating energy is Shiva (Srishti, Sthithi and Laya energies) are the three heads.
Dattatreya is considered as the Grand Teacher or “Guru principle” in the universe

Dattatreya Jayanti or Datta Jayanti is the celebration of the birth of Dattatreya, who is revered as the highest of yogis and of monastic life.
The Jayanti falls on the full moon day of the month of Margashirsha.

Dattatreya, also known as Avadhut (one who is free from worldly feelings and obligations) and Digambar, is a form of Lord Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.

When Anasuya, wife of Atri maharshi performed severe penance to have a son with the qualities of Lords Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the lords decide to test Anasuya’s virtuousness. They appeared before her as ascetics and asked her to give them alms in a naked state.

Since guests are believed to be a form of God, Anasuya is unable to refuse them. She sprinkles water on them and chants a mantra, turning them into babies at which time, she breastfeeds them naked.
On his return, Atri maharshi transforms the three babies into one with three heads and six arms. The trinity revert to their forms and offer their blessings to the couple.


The maharshi and Anasuya make a wish for the baby and their wish is fulfilled in the form of Dattatreya.
Although he carries the qualities of the three Lords, Dattatreya is considered an avatar of Vishnu and his brothers Chandra and sage Durvasa are believed to be forms of Lords Brahma and Shiva.


The cow standing with Dattatreya is the kamadhenu and stands for creation and the earth. The four dogs stand for the four Vedas. Holding the Sudarshan chakra, Dattatreya controls time and is beyond time.
The conch stands for the eternal Aum and his japa mala with its beads contains all the mantras, the damaru contains all shastras and the kamandal offers food and water. The trishul indicates that he has transcended the sattva, rajas and tamas gunas.

Dattatreya Jayanti is celebrated with fervour in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and parts of Gujarat. Dattatreya is worshipped in the form of his footwear, the padukas, particularly in the datta kshetras.
People have an early bath and undertake a fast. After worshipping Dattatreya, they meditate and sing bhajans. Some read the Avadhuta Gita and Jivanmukta Gita, others also read the Datta Prabodh and Datta Mahatmya. Avadhuta Gita contains the secrets of Vedanta which Dattatreya revealed to Lord Subrahmanya.
Devotees recite Shri Gurucharitra seven days prior to Datta Jayanti. Before beginning the worship, devotees apply two vertical lines on the forehead, symbolic of Vishnu worship. The ring finger of the right hand is used to apply the tilak. This is meant to awaken the spiritual side and bring concentration to the devotee.
Sandalwood paste is applied to the deity, again using the ring finger of the right hand. Turmeric and vermilion are applied to Dattatreya’s feet. This is done using the ring finger and thumb and is believed to activate the anahat chakra which enhances the feeling of devotion.
Jasmine and tuberose flowers are offered at the feet of the deity. The flowers should be in multiples of seven and it is beneficial if they are in diamond pattern. Circumambulation around the deity is done in multiples of seven.
Agarbatti is lit, particularly with fragrance of sandal, kewda or ketaki and amber. Beginners of spiritual practice can light two incense sticks for greater benefit. The incense stick must be held by the right index finger and thumb and must be moved three times in clockwise direction in front of the deity.
Chanting the mantra ‘Shree Gurudev Datta’ on the day of Datta Jayanti is believed to carry great potency. It is recommended that devotees chant the mantra as long as they can throughout the day.

1. Shripada Shri Vallabha who lived during the 14th century is believed to be Dattatreya’s first incarnation during the Kali Yuga. He lived in Pithapuram of Andhra Pradesh.
2. Narasimha Saraswati who had lived during the 14th-15th centuries is said to be the second avatar of Dattatreya, according to Shri Guru Charitra.
3. Shri Manikya Prabhu is said to be the next avatar and had lived during the 19th century.
4. Shri Swami Samarth Maharaj of Akkalkota in Maharashtra is the next avatar and lived during the 19th century.
5. Some believe that Shirdi Sai Baba who lived during the 19th-20th centuries is the fifth avatar.
6. Shri Vasudevananda Saraswati ‘Tembe Swami’ Maharaj of Maangaon who lived during the 19th-20th centuries and Shri Gajanan Maharaj of Shegaon of the 19th-20th centuries are also believed to be his avatars.
 Mahur in Nanded
 Panchaleshwar in Beed district near Rakshasbhuvan Shani mandir
 Karanja in Washim which is the birthplace of Shri Narasimha Saraswati Swami Maharaj
 Audumbar in Kolhapur
 Narsobawadi in Kolhapur in which Dattatreya temple is at the confluence of Krishna and Panchaganga rivers
 Akkalkot in Solapur in which Shri Swami Samarth Maharaj stayed for many years
 Shirdi in Ahmednagar
 Maangaon in Sindhudurg, birthplace of Shri Vasudevananda Saraswati Tembe Swami Maharaj
 Shegaon in Buldhana
 Pithapuram in East Godavari which is the birthplace of Shripada Shri Vallabha Swami Maharaj
 Srisailam in Kurnool with temples of Mallikarjunaswamy and Bhramaramba. Shri Guru Narasimha Saraswati completed his avatar nearby
 Gokarna in Uttara Kannada in which Shripada Vallabha Swami stayed for three years.
 Kurwapur in Raichur where Shripada Vallabha Swami completed his avatar
 Gangapur in Gulbarga
 Maniknagar in Bidar in which Shri Manikya Prabhu Maharaj stayed.
 Atop Girnar in Junagadh is Guru Dattatreya temple to which one must climb 10,000 steps
 Garudeshwar in Narmada with its Dattatreya temple and samadhi of Shri Vasudevananda Saraswati Tembe Swami Maharaj.
 Bhaktapur in Nepal